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Table 1 Absolute (N) and percentage (%) distribution of births and infant deaths by the child-specific, mother-specific and household socio-economic covariates across the EAG and non-EAG regions of India

From: Differential in infant, childhood and under-five death clustering among the empowered and non-empowered action group regions in India

Characteristics Non-EAG Region EAG Region
Births Infant deaths Chi-square test for association Births Infant deaths Chi-square test for association
N % N % N % N %
Survival status of previous sibling at the time of conception of index child
 Alive 328,133 56.5 8860 2.7 χ2 = 5196.15;p-value = 0.001 440,912 61.5 20,085 4.6 χ2 = 6803.33;p-value = 0.001
 Dead 16,221 2.8 2114 13.0 38,810 5.4 5495 14.2
 Has no preceding sibling 236,383 40.7 8248 3.5 237,558 33.1 16,877 7.1
Birth interval preceding to index child (in months)
 28 and more months 186,283 32.1 3861 2.1 χ2 = 3212.82;p-value = 0.001 241,742 33.7 7517 3.1 χ2 = 8368.85;p-value = 0.001
 19–27 months 102,548 17.7 3257 3.2 154,978 21.6 8684 5.6
 Less than 19 months 55,523 9.6 3856 6.9 83,002 11.6 9379 11.3
 Has no preceding sibling 236,383 40.7 8248 3.5 237,558 33.1 16,877 7.1
Birth order of index child
 1–2 418,270 72.0 13,230 3.2 χ2 = 331.34;p-value = 0.001 433,472 60.4 26,610 6.1 χ2 = 295.55;p-value = 0.001
 3 90,920 15.7 2914 3.2 130,004 18.1 6526 5.0
 4 40,174 6.9 1516 3.8 75,429 10.5 4202 5.6
 5 and more 31,373 5.4 1562 5.0 78,375 10.9 5119 6.5
Birth cohort of index child
 2010–2016 131,015 22.6 3784 2.9 χ2 = 764.94;p-value = 0.001 170,824 23.8 7978 4.7 χ2 = 2704.81;p-value = 0.001
 2005–2009 120,026 20.7 3548 3.0 154,081 21.5 8090 5.3
 2000–2004 118,212 20.4 3657 3.1 149,892 20.9 8273 5.5
 1995–1999 103,057 17.7 3394 3.3 124,871 17.4 7913 6.3
 1990–1994 72,790 12.5 2880 4.0 80,846 11.3 6248 7.7
 1970–1989 35,637 6.1 1959 5.5 36,766 5.1 3955 10.8
Gender of child
 Male 306,208 52.7 11,051 3.6 χ2 = 181.01;p-value = 0.001 376,037 52.4 23,506 6.3 χ2 = 156.27;p-value = 0.001
 Female 274,529 47.3 8171 3.0 341,243 47.6 18,951 5.6
Mother’s age during birth of index child (in years)
 Less than 20 136,083 23.4 6311 4.6 χ2 = 1037.16;p-value = 0.001 152,112 21.2 13,680 9.0 χ2 = 3396.36;p-value = 0.001
 20–24 238,460 41.1 7111 3.0 300,792 41.9 16,219 5.4
 25–29 141,359 24.3 3714 2.6 177,608 24.8 8209 4.6
 30 and more 64,835 11.2 2086 3.2 86,768 12.1 4349 5.0
Mother’s anaemia status
 Not anaemic 297,151 51.2 9165 3.1 χ2 = 137.13;p-value = 0.001 329,252 45.9 18,894 5.7 χ2 = 174.57;p-value = 0.001
 Moderately anaemic 208,083 35.8 7112 3.4 291,572 40.6 16,957 5.8
 Severely anaemic 75,503 13.0 2945 3.9 96,456 13.4 6606 6.8
Mother’s level of education
 No formal schooling 195,540 33.7 8297 4.2 χ2 = 1148.74;p-value = 0.001 410,678 57.3 27,559 6.7 χ2 = 1429.12;p-value = 0.001
 Upto Primary 98,551 17.0 3697 3.8 105,850 14.8 6303 6.0
 Secondary or higher 286,646 49.4 7228 2.5 200,752 28.0 8595 4.3
Caste of the household
 Scheduled Tribes 144,226 24.8 4607 3.2 χ2 = 32.12;p-value = 0.001 101,200 14.1 6092 6.0 χ2 = 369.62;p-value = 0.001
 Scheduled Castes 99,908 17.2 3582 3.6 143,735 20.0 9726 6.8
 Other Backward Classes 167,092 28.8 5417 3.2 346,913 48.4 20,337 5.9
 Others 169,511 29.2 5616 3.3 125,432 17.5 6302 5.0
Religion of the household
 Hinduism 346,556 59.7 11,793 3.4 χ2 = 164.16;p-value = 0.001 609,694 85.0 36,773 6.0 χ2 = 99.51;p-value = 0.001
 Islam 97,726 16.8 3607 3.7 92,441 12.9 4958 5.4
 Others 136,455 23.5 3822 2.8 15,145 2.1 726 4.8
Place of residence  
 Urban 172,151 29.6 4552 2.6 χ2 = 338.86;p-value = 0.001 156,544 21.8 7672 4.9 χ2 = 372.88;p-value = 0.001
 Rural 408,586 70.4 14,670 3.6 560,736 78.2 34,785 6.2
Household Wealth Quintile
 Richest 109,350 18.8 2409 2.2 χ2 = 1090.59;p-value = 0.001 78,223 10.9 2765 3.5 χ2 = 1601.63;p-value = 0.001
 Richer 130,452 22.5 3636 2.8 93,584 13.0 4518 4.8
 Middle 142,840 24.6 4820 3.4 122,217 17.0 6758 5.5
 Poorer 132,307 22.8 5323 4.0 173,126 24.1 10,908 6.3
 Poorest 65,788 11.3 3034 4.6 250,130 34.9 17,508 7.0
Overall 580,737 100.0 19,222 3.3   717,280 100.0 42,457 5.9  
  1. Note - χ2 shows the value of the chi-square test statistic