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Table 3 Physico-chemical parameters compared to Beninese and WHO standards

From: Assessment of the quality of effluent management from university hospitals in the Littoral department in Benin

Parameters CNHU-HKM CHU-MEL HIA-CHU CHUZ SL SIBEAU Standards Benin/WHO
I O I O FS FS FS I O
pH 7.05 7.08 7.00 7.34 7.17 7.05 7.66 7.65 7.45 6–9
T (°C) 22.90 22.60 22.40 22.50 21.62 25.50 27.71 27.80 28.2 ≤ 30
SS (mg/L) 93.00 80.00 111.00 68.00 65.67 105.17 109.63 9256.0 8230.0 ≤ 35a
COD (mgO2/L) 424.00 289.00 271.71 143.85 150.18 256.33 41.01 6452.0 5230.0 ≤ 125 a
BOD5 (mgO2/L) 234.00 146.00 161.00 55.00 87.21 135.31 25.64 985.00 875.00 ≤ 25 a
DO (mg/L) 0.69 3.51 3.70 4.20 0.69 1.19 1.55 1.08 1.76 > 5
Am (mg/L) 9.36 2.10 23.76 7.28 55.11 90.02 68.19 102.0 93.0 < 0.2
PT (mg/L) 17.9 12.16 29.06 26.77 42.83 55.98 31.87 875.0 805.0 ≤ 10
  1. I Inlet, O Outlet, FS Septic tanks, pH potential of hydrogen, T Temperature, SS suspended matter, COD chemical demand in O2, BOD5 biochemical demand in O2, DO dissolved oxygen, Am Ammonium, PT total phosphorus
  2. aBenin standard