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Table 2 Results from multi-level regression models examining associations between yard characteristics and physical activity and outdoor play. Yard size β divided by 10 is minutes associated with a 10% increase in yard size. Greenness β is minutes associated with a 0.1 increase in NDVI

From: Backyard benefits? A cross-sectional study of yard size and greenness and children’s physical activity and outdoor play

    Yard Size a (log(m2)) Greennessa,b (rescaled to 0–10)
n Mean (SD) β (95% CI) p β (95% CI) p
Accelerometer measured physical activity
Accelerometer (mins/day)
Weekdays
 Sedentary behaviour 371 414.3 (69.7) -2.4 (−6.2, 11.0) 0.58 0.9 (− 6.0, 7.8) 0.95
 Light physical activity 371 308.1 (55.3) 1.4 (−5.7, 8.5) 0.70 0.5 (−5.3, 6.3) 0.87
 Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity 371 98.1 (34.8) -2.4 (−6.5, 1.7) 0.25 −1.4 (−4.7, 1.9) 0.41
Total physical activity (LPA + MVPA) 371 406.8 (72.6) −1.3 (− 10.5, 7.9) 0.79 −0.3 (−7.5, 6.8) 0.93
Weekends
 Sedentary behaviour 371 416.0 (89.4) 4.3 (−7.0, 15.6) 0.46 1.4 (−7.8, 710.5) 0.76
 Light physical activity 371 303.0 (63.0) 1.2 (−6.6, 9.0) 0.78 3.5 (−2.8, 9.8) 0.27
 Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity 371 94.1 (467) 0.1 (−5.7, 5.5) 0.97 −3.2 (−7.8, 1.3) 0.16
Total physical activity (LPA + MVPA) 371 397.3 (88.2) 1.2 (−9.8, 12.1) 0.83 1.1 (−7.4, 9.5) 0.80
Parent reported outdoor play
 Minutes spent outdoors playing (daily) 1535 96.4 (59.5) 3.8 (1.0, 6.7) 0.009 −1.6 (−4.5, 1.2) 0.26
  1. β Regression coefficient, CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation, p p-value
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic position (SEIFA, maternal education), maternal ethnicity, and maternal age at birth
  3. bGreenness calculated using NDVI; coefficient relates to a 10% increase in NDVI