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Table 4 Comparison of demographic and exposure characteristics in the underestimation and overestimation groups

From: Misclassification and characterization of exposure to humidifier disinfectants using a questionnaire

Variables Overestimation group Underestimation group Others (true-assumed group)
N % N % N %
Sex Male 193 52.9 150 43.6 1416 51.5
Female 172 47.1 194 56.4 1329 48.4
Unknown 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 0.1
Age at damage (years) < 10 90 24.7 195 56.7 790 28.8
10s 12 3.3 3 0.9 71 2.6
20s 22 6.0 16 4.7 202 7.4
30s 41 11.2 80 23.3 535 19.5
40s 45 12.3 13 3.8 272 9.9
50s 52 14.2 12 3.5 290 10.6
60s 43 11.8 9 2.6 263 9.6
≥70 33 9.0 3 0.9 148 5.4
Unknown 27 7.4 13 3.8 176 6.4
Smoking status Current smoker 17 4.7 0 0 109 4.0
Former smoker 88 24.1 17 4.9 511 18.6
Never smoker 260 71.2 322 93.6 2110 76.8
Unknown 0 0 5 1.5 17 0.6
Survival status Survival 276 75.6 208 60.5 2300 83.7
Death 89 24.4 136 39.5 447 16.3
Job status Employed 147 40.3 74 21.5 1165 42.4
Unemployed 216 59.2 193 56.1 1432 52.1
Unknown 2 0.5 77 22.4 150 5.5
Ventilation status Ventilated 214 58.6 245 71.2 1192 61.2
Non-ventilated 147 40.3 90 26.2 590 30.3
Unknown 4 1.1 9 2.6 165 6.0
Sprayed amount Least 2 0.5 18 5.2 35 1.3
Slightly 10 2.7 38 11.1 203 7.4
Moderate 169 46.3 180 52.3 1461 53.2
Strong 173 47.4 99 28.8 994 36.2
Unknown 11 3.0 9 2.6 54 2.0
Disance between the humidifier and the face of subject < 0.5 m 131 35.9 51 14.8 752 27.4
0.5 m ≤ − < 1 m 156 42.7 116 33.7 1052 38.3
1 m ≤ − < 2 m 62 17.0 120 34.9 728 26.5
≥  2 m 14 3.8 56 16.3 207 7.5
Unknown 2 0.5 1 0.3 8 0.3
Spraying direction To breathing zone 278 76.2 173 50.3 1841 67.0
To others 82 22.4 151 43.9 857 31.2
Unknown 5 1.4 20 5.8 49 1.8