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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the sample by sex and repeated measures by ANOVA

From: Body image perception and body composition in early adolescents: a longitudinal study of an Italian cohort

  Males Females ANOVA
I measurement II measurement III measurement I measurement II measurement III measurement Sex difference Meas. difference Sex*Meas.
Variables Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD F p F p F p
height (cm) 151.03 7.11 157.67 8.00 164.30 8.90 153.11 6.31 157.92 5.94 160.55 5.52 0.26 0.608 805.76 0.000 70.24 0.000
sitting height (cm) 77.36 3.74 80.15 4.63 83.49 5.19 79.14 3.80 82.03 3.04 83.59 2.68 3.56 0.061 294.85 0.000 10.92 0.000
leg length (cm) 73.66 4.48 77.52 4.42 80.81 4.74 73.98 3.84 75.89 3.77 76.96 3.83 6.71 0.011 396.24 0.000 70.01 0.000
weight (kg) 44.13 8.07 49.34 8.62 55.06 9.50 44.30 6.98 48.87 6.66 53.36 6.76 0.48 0.491 578.92 0.000 7.20 0.001
Cormic index 51.24 1.40 50.83 1.33 50.81 1.33 51.69 1.41 51.96 1.10 52.08 1.17 24.57 0.000 0.24 0.786 10.01 0.000
BMI (kg/m2) 19.53 2.89 19.75 2.61 20.29 2.52 18.85 2.44 19.59 2.46 20.75 2.65 0.18 0.670 58.13 0.000 9.15 0.000
waist circumference (cm) 67.10 6.62 69.53 6.50 71.62 7.13 64.31 5.64 66.05 5.28 67.88 5.93 12.48 0.001 56.55 0.000 1.04 0.353
hip circumference (cm) 81.40 7.20 84.19 6.70 86.99 6.91 84.19 6.40 88.10 6.31 91.88 5.48 11.58 0.001 153.30 0.000 3.04 0.049
WHR 0.71 0.10 0.65 0.05 0.65 0.05 0.72 0.05 0.70 0.04 0.70 0.04 23.75 0.000 25.72 0.000 7.58 0.001
WhtR 0.44 0.04 0.44 0.04 0.44 0.04 0.42 0.04 0.42 0.04 0.42 0.04 11.02 0.001 0.70 0.497 2.49 0.085
biceps skinfold (mm) 8.02 3.80 7.05 3.76 6.37 3.34 7.73 2.88 7.79 2.84 8.39 3.21 2.15 0.145 2.79 0.063 11.62 0.000
triceps skinfold (mm) 12.73 3.50 11.90 3.69 10.86 3.52 12.13 3.36 12.16 2.79 14.16 3.68 3.41 0.067 1.64 0.195 22.33 0.000
subscapular skinfold (mm) 9.58 4.04 8.71 3.78 8.61 3.77 9.29 3.63 9.59 3.32 11.02 3.88 2.23 0.138 3.64 0.027 11.55 0.000
supraspinal skinfold (mm) 10.41 5.58 9.32 5.18 9.77 5.63 10.32 3.80 10.41 3.58 12.82 5.15 2.65 0.106 6.76 0.001 5.99 0.003
suprailiac skinfold (mm) 11.88 5.20 11.37 5.87 11.60 5.89 12.22 4.67 13.36 4.38 15.74 5.23 6.50 0.012 9.84 0.000 9.03 0.000
medial calf skinfold (mm) 11.70 4.15 11.83 4.19 10.69 4.20 11.96 3.55 12.30 3.45 13.78 3.63 4.49 0.036 0.85 0.431 9.94 0.000
lateral calf skinfold (mm) 12.33 3.45 12.50 3.89 12.05 3.70 12.26 3.17 12.49 3.29 15.14 4.30 3.38 0.068 9.56 0.000 12.96 0.000
thigh skinfold (mm) 16.63 4.61 15.54 4.68 14.59 4.93 17.66 4.50 17.76 4.63 20.58 5.39 16.70 0.000 2.55 0.080 15.65 0.000
sum of skinfold (mm) 93.25 29.36 88.53 31.38 83.93 30.12 93.57 23.71 95.86 23.38 111.63 28.56 5.84 0.017 5.46 0.005 22.52 0.000
%F 20.93 5.77 19.48 5.79 17.21 5.71 19.55 4.39 19.89 4.04 22.19 4.04 2.42 0.122 1.59 0.206 41.53 0.000
FM (kg) 9.49 3.81 9.88 4.17 9.74 4.26 8.83 2.91 9.95 3.06 11.99 3.26 0.52 0.472 38.35 0.000 24.81 0.000
FFM (kg) 34.64 5.38 39.38 5.90 45.32 7.03 35.48 4.97 39.18 4.59 41.38 4.49 1.87 0.174 440.94 0.000 41.47 0.000
club sport amount (h/week) 3.74 1.52 4.53 2.23 4.85 1.98 3.53 2.45 4.22 2.72 4.06 2.53 1.76 0.187 11.75 0.000 0.56 0.571
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, WHR Waist-to-Hip Ratio, WthR Waist-to-Height Ratio, %F percentage of fat mass, FM Fat Mass, FFM Fat Free Mass, Meas measurement