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Table 1 Summary of the source and justification of each domain of the DOTIFS scale

From: The health implications of distrust in the food system: findings from the dimensions of trust in food systems scale (DOTIFS scale)

Domain Source of questions Rationale for inclusion
Generalised trust From the OECD Guidelines on Measuring Trust [34] with adaptions based on use in an Australian population in [43]. The OECD Guidelines on Measuring Trust [34] recommends always including a measure of generalised trust when assessing trust
Food Safety and Integrity Adapted from the UK Food Standards Agency 2018 tracker [13, 26] and Edelman Trust Barometer [25]. Trust – in whom – with regards to what (please see ‘Development of DOTIFS scale structure and content areas’ section)
Perceptions of food safety and extent to which food governance reflects consumer values/issues beyond safety.
Trust in Food System Organisations and Institutions Overarching question structures adapted from Poppe and Kjaernes, Trust in food in Europe, from the Edelman trust barometer ‘Overall Trust’ measure for companies and OECD Guidelines on Measuring Trust [25, 31, 34]. Trust – in whom – with regards to what
Measures consumer trust in food institutions and the organisation that make up the food system.
Food Concerns Overarching question structures adapted from the Food Fears survey [15], Poppe and Kjaernes, Trust in food in Europe [25] and the UK Food Standards Agency 2018 tracker [13, 26]. Individual items within grouped questions from Eurobarometer [14], FSANZ [28], the Food and Health Survey [29], and Taylor et al. [32]. Trust – in whom – with regards to what
Measures degree of concern with food issues.
Engagement with Food Issues and Activism Adapted from Poppe and Kjarnes [25] and the UK Food Standards Agency 2018 tracker [13, 26] Trust – in whom – with regards to what
Measures extent of actions in relation to food concerns, which reflects (dis) trust
Belief in the Food System Adapted from the ‘System is Failing’ measure from Edelman Trust Barometer [25] Trust – in whom – with regards to what
Measures social justice, hope for food system, confidence and desire for change
Demographics Adapted from [30, 32, 43]. Demographics shown to be relevant to trust and used in the context of trust assessment in the cited sources.