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Table 4 Logistic Regression estimates for low ADL, low IADL and Low cognitive ability among older adults (aged 60 years and above), sex-stratified

From: Feeling about living arrangements and associated health outcomes among older adults in India: a cross-sectional study

Variables Low ADL Low IADL Low cognitive ability
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Men Women Men Women Men Women
Feeling about present living arrangement
 Satisfactory Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Non satisfactory 1.77*(1.20,2.62) 1.59*(1.17,2.18) 1.32*(1.03,1.69) 1.57*(1.24,1.98) 1.26(0.98,1.61) 1.44*(1.13,1.82)
Living arrangement
 Alone Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 With spouse 3.74(0.84,16.59) 1.32(0.64,2.73) 3.51*(2.13,5.76) 2.14*(1.51,3.02) 0.75(0.47,1.21) 0.93(0.67,1.28)
 With children 5.16*(1.2,22.18) 2.72*(1.63,4.51) 4.70*(2.91,7.59) 4.49*(3.43,5.87) 0.84(0.53,1.31) 1.20(0.93,1.54)
 Others 5.18*(1.13,23.76) 2.87*(1.59,5.18) 4.11*(2.41,6.99) 3.90*(2.78,5.48) 0.89(0.54,1.48) 1.35(0.97,1.88)
Age (in years)
 60–69 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 70–79 1.83*(1.21,2.76) 1.93*(1.40,2.67) 1.37*(1.13,1.67) 2.16*(1.77,2.64) 1.33*(1.09,1.61) 1.51*(1.24,1.85)
 80+ 4.21*(2.65,6.69) 4.50*(3.04,6.66) 3.73*(2.63,5.30) 4.90*(3.44,6.96) 2.26*(1.64,3.12) 1.63*(1.18,2.24)
Educational status (in years)
No schooling Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Below 5 years 1.35(0.86,2.12) 0.72(0.48,1.1) 0.66*(0.53,0.83) 0.53*(0.43,0.66) 0.84(0.67,1.06) 0.65*(0.52,0.81)
 6 to 10 Years 1.39(0.83,2.35) 0.96(0.55,1.66) 0.48*(0.38,0.61) 0.26*(0.2,0.35) 0.4*(0.32,0.51) 0.40*(0.31,0.51)
 11+ years 1.30(0.50,3.37) 1.00(0.41,2.42) 0.20*(0.14,0.30) 0.19*(0.11,0.31) 0.25*(0.18,0.36) 0.20*(0.12,0.31)
Working status
 No Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes 0.29*(0.15,0.53) 0.14*(0.03,0.64) 0.46*(0.38,0.55) 0.49*(0.37,0.65) 0.77*(0.64,0.92) 1.05(0.81,1.37)
Marital status
 Not in union Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Currently in union 1.09(0.70,1.69) 1.26(0.88,1.81) 0.89(0.70,1.14) 0.82(0.67,1.01) 0.87(0.68,1.11) 0.97(0.81,1.18)
Religion
 Hindu Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Muslim 1.61(0.85,3.02) 1.65*(1.05,2.57) 1.22(0.86,1.75) 1.65*(1.19,2.28) 0.99(0.70,1.40) 0.87(0.61,1.23)
 Sikh 1.64(0.67,4.05) 0.97(0.48,1.95) 1.12(0.74,1.69) 0.94(0.63,1.42) 1.02(0.68,1.54) 1.03(0.70,1.50)
 Others 0.84(0.30,2.35) 0.80(0.45,1.43) 0.5*(0.32,0.79) 1.03(0.67,1.57) 1.24(0.83,1.85) 1.53*(1.04,2.24)
Caste
 Scheduled Caste Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Scheduled Tribe 0.87(0.38,2.00) 0.85(0.38,1.86) 1.21(0.79,1.86) 0.74(0.49,1.11) 1.49(0.98,2.27) 1.09(0.72,1.66)
 Other Backward Class 1.22(0.75,1.98) 0.88(0.58,1.35) 1.16(0.90,1.49) 0.89(0.68,1.16) 0.90(0.70,1.16) 1.23(0.95,1.59)
 Others 0.66(0.40,1.09) 1.15(0.78,1.70) 1.13(0.89,1.44) 0.90(0.71,1.16) 0.85(0.67,1.08) 1.01(0.79,1.30)
Place of residence
 Rural Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Urban 0.85(0.58,1.26) 1.17(0.87,1.57) 1.17(0.97,1.40) 0.83*(0.69,0.99) 1.06(0.88,1.27) 0.96(0.81,1.13)
Wealth status
 Poorest Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Poorer 0.85(0.49,1.5) 1.14(0.73,1.76) 0.73*(0.56,0.96) 1.04(0.79,1.37) 0.93(0.71,1.21) 1.1(0.84,1.44)
 Middle 1.13(0.6,2.11) 0.88(0.54,1.45) 0.77(0.57,1.04) 0.80(0.59,1.09) 0.77(0.57,1.04) 0.94(0.70,1.26)
 Richer 0.66(0.31,1.41) 0.81(0.47,1.39) 0.60*(0.44,0.83) 0.72*(0.52,1.00) 0.51*(0.37,0.71) 0.65*(0.47,0.89)
 Richest 0.84(0.37,1.91) 0.76(0.42,1.39) 0.48*(0.33,0.69) 1.10(0.76,1.60) 0.56*(0.39,0.81) 0.70*(0.49,0.99)
State
 Kerala Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Himachal Pradesh 1.67(0.80,3.47) 0.73(0.41,1.31) 2.38*(1.64,3.44) 3.52*(2.46,5.04) 0.38*(0.27,0.53) 0.59*(0.41,0.85)
 Punjab 0.77(0.30,1.96) 0.38*(0.20,0.72) 2.51*(1.64,3.85) 3.03*(2.00,4.57) 0.46*(0.30,0.70) 0.46*(0.31,0.67)
 West Bengal 2.92*(1.43,5.95) 0.85(0.51,1.41) 3.08*(2.15,4.41) 6.48*(4.60,9.12) 1.72*(1.19,2.48) 2.44*(1.63,3.64)
 Orissa 1.81(0.88,3.72) 0.64(0.35,1.19) 2.71*(1.89,3.89) 6.18*(4.29,8.90) 0.6*(0.42,0.85) 0.62*(0.43,0.89)
Maharashtra 1.53(0.76,3.09) 0.26*(0.14,0.48) 1.29(0.93,1.79) 2.84*(2.08,3.89) 0.38*(0.28,0.52) 0.49*(0.37,0.66)
Tamil Nadu 1.96(0.85,4.51) 1.24(0.73,2.11) 3.79*(2.64,5.43) 2.38*(1.72,3.29) 0.27*(0.19,0.39) 0.30*(0.22,0.42)
  1. Low ADL: Activities of Daily living (coded in binary i.e. 1 “scores of 5 or less” and 0 “scores 6+”)
  2. Low IADL: Instrumental Activities of Daily living (coded in binary i.e. 1 “scores of 5 or less” and 0 “scores 6+”)
  3. Low cognitive ability (coded in binary i.e. 1 “scores of 4 or less” and 0 “scores 5+”)
  4. *if p < 0.05
  5. Ref Reference, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  6. The analysis is controlled for state level variations