Skip to main content

Table 3 Logistic Regression estimates for poor self-rated health, low psychological health, and low subjective well-being among older adults (aged 60 years and above), sex-stratified

From: Feeling about living arrangements and associated health outcomes among older adults in India: a cross-sectional study

Variables Poor self-rated health Low psychological health Low subjective well-being
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Men Women Men Women Men Women
Feeling about present living arrangement
 Satisfactory Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Non satisfactory 4.45*(3.25,6.09) 3.32*(2.54,4.34) 2.15*(1.61,2.86) 1.99*(1.57,2.53) 3.37*(2.54,4.45) 3.03*(2.36,3.88)
Living arrangement
 Alone Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 With spouse 1.17(0.65,2.09) 1.32(0.90,1.92) 0.47*(0.26,0.86) 0.78(0.50,1.21) 0.71(0.36,1.39) 1.15(0.76,1.74)
 With children 1.40(0.80,2.44) 1.34*(1.01,1.79) 0.57(0.32,1.01) 1.13(0.83,1.52) 0.74(0.39,1.42) 1.08(0.80,1.46)
 Others 1.31(0.70,2.46) 1.42(0.98,2.07) 0.91(0.47,1.75) 1.35(0.90,2.03) 1.12(0.54,2.33) 1.28(0.86,1.9)
Age (in years)
 60–69 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 70–79 1.23*(1.01,1.49) 1.12(0.93,1.36) 0.97(0.76,1.23) 1.24*(1.00,1.53) 0.92(0.73,1.17) 1.31*(1.06,1.60)
 80+ 1.22(0.88,1.67) 1.22(0.89,1.67) 1.29(0.92,1.83) 1.62*(1.19,2.2) 1.31(0.94,1.84) 1.78*(1.33,2.38)
Educational status (in years)
 No schooling Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Below 5 years 0.99(0.79,1.24) 0.80(0.63,1.00) 0.73*(0.57,0.95) 0.74*(0.58,0.96) 0.70*(0.55,0.90) 0.63*(0.50,0.79)
 6 to 10 years 0.08(0.63,1.01) 0.51*(0.39,0.65) 0.53*(0.39,0.71) 0.46*(0.32,0.67) 0.45*(0.34,0.60) 0.54*(0.39,0.73)
 11+ years 0.55*(0.38,0.78) 0.45*(0.27,0.74) 0.42*(0.25,0.71) 0.44*(0.20,0.98) 0.43*(0.24,0.75) 0.59(0.31,1.15)
Working status
 No Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Yes 0.86(0.71,1.04) 0.78(0.6,1.02) 0.77*(0.6,0.97) 0.87(0.65,1.17) 0.55*(0.43,0.69) 1.15(0.87,1.52)
Marital status
 Not in union Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Currently in union 0.95(0.74,1.21) 0.94(0.77,1.14) 1.11(0.83,1.47) 1.01(0.8,1.27) 0.98(0.74,1.29) 0.91(0.73,1.14)
Religion
 Hindu Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Muslim 1.17(0.81,1.68) 1.09(0.77,1.54) 1.17(0.76,1.79) 1.25(0.9,1.76) 1.40(0.89,2.19) 1.14(0.82,1.59)
 Sikh 1.16(0.74,1.80) 0.87(0.58,1.29) 1.08(0.53,2.20) 0.90(0.46,1.76) 0.97(0.51,1.83) 1.37(0.81,2.33)
 Others 1.07(0.7,1.66) 1.21(0.8,1.81) 0.85(0.48,1.50) 1.04(0.66,1.62) 1.2(0.65,2.2) 1.53*(1.03,2.26)
Caste
 Scheduled Caste Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Scheduled Tribe 0.89(0.58,1.38) 0.82(0.55,1.21) 1.12(0.72,1.76) 0.8(0.54,1.17) 1.03(0.65,1.62) 0.93(0.63,1.37)
 Other Backward Class 1.05(0.81,1.36) 1.14(0.89,1.48) 0.88(0.65,1.18) 0.71*(0.54,0.93) 0.96(0.71,1.3) 1.15(0.88,1.51)
 Others 0.90(0.71,1.16) 1.15(0.91,1.47) 0.78(0.58,1.05) 0.83(0.64,1.09) 0.76(0.58,1.02) 0.89(0.69,1.15)
Place of residence
 Rural Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Urban 0.98(0.81,1.17) 0.96(0.80,1.14) 0.95(0.75,1.20) 0.92(0.75,1.13) 1.20(0.96,1.51) 1.06(0.88,1.28)
Wealth status
 Poorest Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Poorer 0.97(0.74,1.28) 0.74*(0.57,0.96) 1.15(0.86,1.53) 1.18(0.91,1.53) 0.97(0.74,1.27) 0.71*(0.55,0.92)
 Middle 0.78(0.58,1.06) 0.57*(0.42,0.76) 0.95(0.68,1.33) 0.85(0.63,1.15) 0.64*(0.46,0.88) 0.55*(0.41,0.74)
 Richer 0.71*(0.51,0.99) 0.47*(0.34,0.65) 0.77(0.51,1.15) 0.75(0.53,1.07) 0.38*(0.26,0.55) 0.49*(0.35,0.68)
 Richest 0.70(0.48,1.03) 0.65*(0.45,0.93) 0.52*(0.31,0.87) 0.66*(0.43,1.00) 0.23*(0.13,0.38) 0.40*(0.27,0.58)
State
 Kerala Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Himachal Pradesh 0.54*(0.38,0.78) 0.38*(0.27,0.55) 1.45(0.86,2.44) 1.03(0.67,1.57) 1.28(0.76,2.15) 0.94(0.61,1.45)
 Punjab 1.15(0.75,1.76) 0.92(0.62,1.36) 0.64(0.31,1.32) 0.27*(0.15,0.48) 0.74(0.39,1.41) 0.64(0.39,1.08)
 West Bengal 1.63*(1.13,2.37) 1.26(0.88,1.80) 2.60*(1.62,4.16) 1.29(0.90,1.85) 4.38*(2.83,6.79) 4.00*(2.81,5.68)
 Orissa 0.35*(0.24,0.5) 0.2*(0.14,0.29) 3.72*(2.33,5.93) 2.12*(1.45,3.10) 2.06*(1.33,3.19) 1.49*(1.02,2.19)
 Maharashtra 0.31*(0.23,0.43) 0.25*(0.18,0.34) 2.34*(1.52,3.62) 1.33(0.94,1.88) 2.34*(1.55,3.54) 2.62*(1.88,3.64)
 Tamil Nadu 0.70*(0.49,0.98) 0.48*(0.35,0.66) 7.38*(4.57,11.92) 4.79*(3.32,6.91) 2.55*(1.63,3.99) 2.12*(1.48,3.04)
  1. Poor self-rated health (coded in binary form i.e. 1 “poor or fair” and 0 “Excellent, very good and good”)
  2. Low psychological health: General Health Scale (coded in binary form i.e. 1 “scores 5 or less” and 0 “scores more than 6”)
  3. Low subjective well-being (coded in binary form i.e. 1 “scores of 5 or less” and 0 “scores 6+”)
  4. *if p < 0.05
  5. Ref Reference, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval
  6. The analysis is controlled for state level variations