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Table 1 Characteristics of pediatric patients in intensive care units according to poverty status

From: Health disparities of critically ill children according to poverty: the Korean population-based retrospective cohort study

Variables Overall Non-poverty Poverty p-value
(N = 17,893) (n = 16,740) (n = 1153)
Age (years) 7.3 (6.1) 7.1 (6.1) 10.9 (5.4) < 0.001
Age groups     < 0.001
 Infants, < 1 year 4571 (25.5) 4476 (26.7) 95 (8.2)  
 Children, 1–11 years 7283 (40.7) 6894 (41.2) 389 (33.7)  
 Adolescents, 12–17 years 6039 (33.8) 5370 (32.1) 669 (58.0)  
Sex     0.145
 Male 10,357 (57.9) 9666 (57.7) 691 (59.9)  
 Female 7536 (42.1) 7074 (42.3) 462 (40.1)  
Type of hospital     < 0.001
 Tertiary hospital 11,747 (65.7) 11,288 (67.4) 459 (39.8)  
 General hospital 5975 (33.4) 5300 (31.7) 675 (58.5)  
 Other 171 (1.0) 152 (0.9) 19 (1.6)  
Hospital admission typea     0.002
 Emergency department 8218 (45.9) 7638 (45.6) 580 (50.3)  
 Outpatient department 9673 (54.1) 9100 (54.4) 573 (49.7)  
Departmentb     < 0.001
 Medical 7481 (41.8) 6919 (41.3) 562 (48.7)  
 Surgical 10,412 (58.2) 9821 (58.7) 591 (51.3)  
Primary diagnosis     < 0.001
 Congenital anomalies 5082 (28.4) 4872 (29.1) 210 (18.2)  
 Injury 3246 (18.1) 2982 (17.8) 264 (22.9)  
 Respiratory disease 1945 (10.9) 1862 (11.1) 83 (7.2)  
 Neoplasms 1715 (9.6) 1556 (9.3) 159 (13.8)  
 Neurologic disease 1648 (9.2) 1525 (9.1) 123 (10.7)  
 Circulatory disease 1531 (8.6) 1446 (8.6) 85 (7.4)  
 NEC (not elsewhere classified) 622 (3.5) 556 (3.3) 66 (5.7)  
 Gastrointestinal disease 464 (2.6) 439 (2.6) 25 (2.2)  
 Infectious disease 426 (2.4) 391 (2.3) 35 (3.0)  
 Others 1214 (6.8) 1111 (6.6) 103 (8.9)  
Regionc     < 0.001
 Seoul 8368 (46.8) 7973 (47.6) 395 (34.3)  
 Metropolitan areas 3650 (20.4) 3312 (19.8) 338 (29.3)  
 Rural areas 5875 (32.8) 5455 (32.6) 420 (36.4)  
Management procedures
 Mechanical ventilation 7624 (42.6) 7214 (43.1) 410 (35.6) < 0.001
 Vasopressors 2788 (15.6) 2646 (15.8) 142 (12.3) 0.002
 CPR 835 (4.7) 770 (4.6) 65 (5.6) 0.106
 Transplantation 52 (0.3) 49 (0.3) 3 (0.3) 1
 Hemodialysis 456 (2.5) 423 (2.5) 33 (2.9) 0.485
 ECMO 158 (0.9) 147 (0.9) 11 (1.0) 0.790
  1. Values in the table are number (%), except for age (mean and standard deviation)
  2. ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  3. a6 (0.02%) admissions were missing in the hospital admission type
  4. bMedical admissions included Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Dermatology, Rehabilitation Medicine, General, Radiology, Family Medicine, and Emergency Medicine. Surgical admissions included General Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery, Neurosurgery, Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Urology, Oral Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Obstetrics and Gynecology
  5. cRegions were grouped as Seoul, metropolitan areas (Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon and Ulsan) and rural areas (Gyeonggi, Kangwon, Chungbuk, Chungnam, Jeonbuk, Jeonnam, Gyeongbuk, Gyeongnam, Jeju and Sejong)