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Table 1 Basic characteristics of participants (N = 634)

From: Determinants of the quality of life amongst HIV clinic attendees in Malang, Indonesia

  n % QoL
  Mean (SD)
Age (years)*
  < 20 40 6.3 84.81 (7.69)
 21–25 82 12.9 82.02 (7.49)
 26–30 130 20.5 84.38 (6.93)
 31–35 108 17.0 86.72 (8.16)
 36–40 70 11.0 84.94 (6.51)
 41–45 82 12.9 84.97 (6.69)
 46–50 57 9.0 85.57 (9.60)
 51–55 32 5.0 87.54 (6.20)
 56–60 26 4.1 84.98 (7.23)
 61+ 7 1.1 87.90 (4.03)
Sex
 Male 488 77.0 84.78 (7.76)
 Female 146 23.0 85.60 (6.68)
Educational level
 Primary education 182 28.7 85.01 (6.66)
 Secondary education 238 37.5 84.61 (7.18)
 Tertiary education 214 33.8 85.33 (8.54)
Marital status*
 Unmarried 282 44.5 83.96 (7.17)
 Married 230 36.3 86.01 (8.24)
 Divorced 90 14.2 84.83 (5.17)
 Widowed 32 5.0 86.83 (9.60)
Household income
  < US$ 108 144 22.7 84.54 (7.78)
 US$ 108 ~ US$ 180 258 40.7 84.86 (7.90)
 US$ 180 ~ US$ 250 142 22.4 84.76 (6.28)
  > US$ 250 90 14.2 86.29 (7.79)
Working*
 No 83 13.1 82.73 (9.23)
 Yes 551 86.9 85.31 (7.18)
Living area**
 Urban 291 45.9 86.01 (7.69)
 Rural 343 54.1 84.09 (7.28)
Accessibility for obtaining healthcare services**
 Difficult 160 25.2 84.28 (6.09)
 Easy 314 49.5 84.37 (7.60)
 Very easy 160 25.2 86.85 (8.36)
Adherence to medication***
 Yes 446 70.3 85.71 (7.54)
 No 188 29.7 83.22 (7.21)
CD4 count (cells/mm3)
  < 200 210 33.1 84.31 (7.77)
 200 ~ 500 335 52.8 85.34 (6.94)
  > 500 89 14.1 85.11 (8.92)
Length of ART (years)***
  ≤ 1.99 301 47.5 83.77 (7.55)
 2 ~ 14.1 333 52.5 86.05 (7.35)
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. QoL quality of life; SD standard deviation; CD4 cluster difference 4; ART adherence to antiretroviral therapy
  3. The average exchange rate in 2018 was US$1.00 ≈ Rp 14,000