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Table 5 Background characteristics of healthcare workers by SARS-Co-V2 test result (n = 4040)

From: SARS-Co-V2 infection in never, former, and current tobacco/nicotine users: a cohort study of 4040 Egyptian healthcare workers

   SARS-Co-V2 test   
Total Negative Positive Unadjusted odds ratioa p-valuea
N = 4040 n = 3770 n = 270
n (%) n (%) n (%) (95% CI)
Age
 18–24 603 (14.9) 578 (15.3) 25 (9.3) Ref  
 25–29 1279 (31.7) 1220 (32.4) 56 (21.9) 1.12 (0.69–1.80) 0.647
 30–39 1057 (26.2) 976 (25.9) 81 (30.0) 1.92 (1.21–3.04) 0.005
 40–49 700 (17.3) 632 (16.8) 68 (25.2) 2.49 (1.55–3.99) < 0.001
  ≥ 50 401 (9.9) 364 (9.7) 37 (13.7) 2.35 (1.39–3.97) 0.001
Gender
 Male 1554 (38.5) 1470 (37.0) 84 (31.1) Ref  
 Female 2486 (61.5) 2300 (61.0) 186 (68.9) 1.42 (1.08–1.85) 0.010
Governorate of residence
 Outside Cairo 978 (24.2) 917 (24.3) 62 (23.0) Ref  
 Cairo 3062 (75.8) 2853 (75.7) 208 (77.0) 1.08 (0.80–1.45) 0.614
Urban/rural residence
 Rural 497 (12.3) 464 (12.3) 33 (12.2) Ref  
 Urban 3543 (87.7) 3306 (87.7) 237 (87.8) 1.00 (0.69–1.47) 0.967
Marital status   
 Not married 1865 (46.2) 1779 (47.2) 86 (31.9) Ref  
 Married 2175 (53.8) 1991 (52.8) 184 (68.1) 1.91 (1.47–2.49) < 0.001
Education
 University/higher 2122 (52.5) 2034 (54.0) 88 (32.6) Ref  
 Secondary/equivalent 1551 (38.4) 1405 (37.3) 146 (54.1) 2.40 (1.83–3.16) < 0.001
 Primary/preparatory 238 (5.9) 213 (5.6) 25 (9.3) 2.71 (1.70–4.32) < 0.001
 Less than primary 129 (3.2) 118 (3.1) 11 (4.1) 2.15 (1.12–4.14) 0.021
Occupation
 Physician 1577 (39.0) 1519 (40.3) 58 (21.5) Ref  
 Nurse 1598 (39.6) 1447 (38.4) 151 (55.9) 1.99 (1.37–2.89) < 0.001
 Non-clinical care 865 (21.4) 804 (21.3) 61 (22.6) 2.73 (2.00–3.73) < 0.001
Tobacco/nicotine use
 Never 3482 (86.2) 3239 (85.9) 243 (90.0) Ref  
 Former 79 (1.9) 75 (2.0) 4 (1.5) 0.71 (0.26–1.96) 0.510
 Current 479 (11.9) 456 (12.1) 23 (8.5) 0.67 (0.43–1.04) 0.076
Pre-existing medical condition, yes 701 (17.4) 638 (16.9) 63 (23.3) 1.49 (1.11–2.01) 0.008
Contact with a confirmed case, yesb 1558 (38.6) 1446 (38.4) 112 (41.5) 1.14 (0.89–1.46) 0.308
Symptoms, yesb 1224 (30.3) 1115 (29.6) 109 (40.4) 1.61 (1.25–2.08) < 0.001
Symptoms severity n = 1224 n = 1115 n = 109   
 Mild 652 (53.3) 612 (54.9) 40 (36.7) Ref  
 Moderate 459 (37.5) 404 (36.2) 55 (50.5) 2.08 (1.36–3.19) 0.001
 Severe 113 (9.2) 99 (8.9) 14 (12.8) 2.16 (1.14–4.12) 0.019
  1. a Bivariable logistic regression analysis
  2. b Numbers indicate any occurrence at either baseline or follow-up phases