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Table 3 Tobacco/nicotine use profile in healthcare workers and SARS-Co-V2 test result (n = 4040)

From: SARS-Co-V2 infection in never, former, and current tobacco/nicotine users: a cohort study of 4040 Egyptian healthcare workers

  Total SARS-Co-V2 test χ2 p-valuea Proportion of positive test
Negative Positive
N = 4040 n = 3770 n = 270 Overall = 6.7 (5.9–7.5)
n (%) n (%) n (%)    row % (95% CI) i.e. SARS-Co-V2 positive test/Total
Tobacco/nicotine use status
 Never 3482 (86.1) 3239 (58.9) 243 (90.0) 3.532 0.060 7.0 (6.1–7.8)
 Former 79 (2.0) 75 (2.3) 4 (1.6) 0.439 0.508 5.1 (0.1–10.0)
 Current 479 (11.9) 456 (12.1) 23 (8.5) 3.085 0.079 4.8 (2.9–6.7)
Current users
Number of product use N = 479 n = 456 n = 23    
  Single 400 (83.5) 380 (83.3) 20 (87.0) 0.209 1.000 5.0 (2.9–7.2)
  Multiple 79 (16.5) 76 (16.7) 3 (13.0) 3.8 (−0.5–8.1)
Daily current use
 Non-daily 92 (19.2) 88 (19.3) 4 (17.4) 0.051 1.000 4.4 (0.1–8.6)
 Daily 387 (80.8) 368 (80.7) 19 (82.6) 4.9 (2.8–7.1)
Type and frequency of current useb
 Cigarettes 440 (91.9) 418 (91.7) 22 (95.7) 0.465 1.000 5.0 (2.9–7.0)
 Daily use, n 366 348 18    
 Waterpipe 96 (20.0) 93 (20.4) 3 (13.0) 0.738 0.593 3.1 (−0.4–6.7)
 Daily use, n 70 67 3    
 Roll your own 19 (3.9) 19 (4.2) 0 0.998 1.000 0
 Daily use, n 16 16 0    
 Electronic device 34 (7.1) 33 (7.2) 1 (4.3) 0.277 1.000 2.9 (−0.3–8.9)
 Daily use, n 27 27 0    
Former users
Time of quitting n = 79 n = 75 n = 4    
  This month 4 (5.1) 4 (5.3) 0 5.040 0.197 0
  A month ago 13 (16.4) 11 (14.7) 2 (50.0) 15.4 (−7.3–38.1)
  2–5 months ago 24 (30.4) 22 (29.3) 2 (50.0) 8.3 (−3.6–20.3)
  6–11 months ago 8 (10.1) 8 (10.7) 0 0
  A year or more ago 30 (38.0) 30 (40.0) 0 0
Quit due to health warnings about the association of tobacco use with COVID-19
 No 58 (73.4) 57 (76.0) 1 (25.0) 5.061 0.055 1.7 (−1.7–5.2)
 Yes 21 (26.6) 18 (24.0) 3 (75.0) 14.3 (−0.2–30.6)
Time of quitting by symptoms No symptoms Symptoms    
  n = 79 n = 52 n = 27   
 This month 4 (5.1) 4 (7.7) 0 (0.0) 2.831 0.606
 A month ago 13 (16.4) 9 (17.3) 4 (14.8)
 2–5 months ago 24 (30.4) 16 (30.8) 8 (29.6)
 6–11 months ago 8 (10.1) 4 (7.7) 4 (14.8)
 A year or more ago 30 (38.0) 19 (36.5) 11 (40.7)
  1. a Chi-squared test or Fisher’s Exact test
  2. b More than one option was allowed, therefore, numbers and percentages do not add to the total of current use