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Table 1 Characteristics of included articles (n = 12)

From: Oral health problems facing refugees in Europe: a scoping review

Study Location Study Design Study Purpose Participants
Age Gender N Nationality
Fennell-wells (2020) [12] UK A review of the asylum process in the UK, the oral health status of child asylum seekers and the challenges in accessing dental services has been conducted. To provide a summary of the oral health status of child refugees and asylum seekers, and to describe their access to health services N/A N/A N/A N/A
Freiberg (2020) [28] Halle (Saale), Germany Retrospective observational study To quantify the utilization of dental health services, the complaints leading to visits at the dental clinic, the diagnoses made by the dentist, and the treatments resulting from it. 20–34 Years old Males and females 4107 Syria, Afghanistan, Iran, Somalia, Guinea-Bissau, Russian Federation, Eritrea, India, Kosovo, Benin, others
Al-ani (2020) [9] Four federal states in Germany Quantitative cross-sectional study To assess oral health, caries prevalence, and subsequent complications among recently arrived refugees, and to compare these findings with the resident population. 3–75+ years old Males and females 544 Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq
Egypt, Mauritania, Lebanon, Palestine, Morocco
Kosovo, Albania,
Ukraine, Armenia, Serbia, Cheek Republic, Georgia, and Macedonia
Iran, Pakistan, Thailand, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and Russia
Eretria, Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and So
Høyvik (2019) [8] Oslo/Norway Twelve qualitative interviews as well as participant observation To explore experiences of irregular migrants related to their oral health and their access to dental care 29–50 Males and females 10–20 Not mentioned
Solyman (2018) [11] Germany Quantitative study: Cross-sectional (and structured interview conducted) To determine the status of oral health among newly arrived refugees and to explore their knowledge, attitude and practices on oral hygiene 18–60 years old Males and females 386 Syria and Iraq
Zukanović (2018) [33] Canton Tuzla, B&H Qualitative study; Narrative Interviews To evaluate the DFA presence and the most common reasons for dental fear and anxiety in displaced persons between 35 and 44 years old males and females 310 Several cities of Canton Tuzla
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Goetz (2018) [15] Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Pilot study with a cross-sectional To evaluate the oral health of refugees and to estimate the costs of oral care. a mean age of 28 years old Males and females 102 Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Eritrea, Yemen, Armenia, Somalia, Iran, Chechnya
Riatto (2018) [10] Melilla, Spain Quantitative study/Correlation questionnaire To determine the oral health status of Syrian immigrant children refugee at the Center for Temporary Stay 5–13 years old males and females 156 Syria
Furnadzhieva (2017) [30] Baden-Württemberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Qualitative study To study the experience of dental practitioners in Germany in treating refugees at outpatient medical facilities 5 to 75 Years old N/A 100 N/A
Mattila (2016) [32] Finland Pilot study To investigate self-reported oral health, oral health habits, dental fear and use of dental health care services among asylum seekers and immigrants 17 to 53 Years old Males and females 38 15 different countries
Angellilo (1996) [29] Catanzaro and Crotone. /Italy Quantitative study To assess the caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, periodontal health and the treatment needs in immigrants and refugees 18–44+ years old Males and females 252 Senegalese, Yugoslavs, Moroccans
Zimmerman (1995) [31] Sweden Quantitative-Cross Sectional study To describe and analyze consumption of dental care in different refugee groups 23–34 years old Males and females 2489 different countries
  1. N number of participants, N/A not applicable