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Table 2 Logistic regression models testing associations between demographic, socioeconomic, residential, and health exposures and the odds of arts engagement

From: Who engages in the arts in the United States? A comparison of several types of engagement using data from The General Social Survey

  Model 1: Events
n = 8684
Model 2: Activities
n = 4372
Model 3: Groups
n = 4268
Model 4: Interested
non-attendes
n = 2061
  OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Age 1.01 0.98–1.03 0.629 1.01 0.98–1.03 0.605 1.01 1.00–1.02 0.007 1.00 0.99–1.01 0.850
Age (quadratic) 1.00 1.00–1.00 0.302 1.00 1.00–1.00 0.129
Female 1.24 1.10–1.39 < 0.001 1.71 1.45–2.00 < 0.001 1.33 1.08–1.63 0.008 1.19 0.90–1.58 0.215
Race/ethnicity
 White 1    1    1    1   
 Black 0.66 0.55–0.78 < 0.001 0.48 0.38–0.61 < 0.001 0.94 0.66–1.33 0.718 0.92 0.61–1.39 0.696
 Other 0.89 0.71–1.11 0.294 0.70 0.51–0.96 0.028 1.11 0.74–1.69 0.606 0.56 0.35–0.89 0.015
Marital status
 Married 1    1    1    1   
 Separated 1.16 1.00–1.34 0.056 0.90 0.75–1.09 0.282 0.91 0.68–1.22 0.531 1.08 0.75–1.57 0.671
 Never married 1.37 1.14–1.63 0.001 1.00 0.78–1.27 0.987 1.58 1.18–2.11 0.002 1.26 0.86–1.86 0.236
Employment status
 Employed 1    1    1    1   
 Unemployed 0.93 0.73–1.19 0.561 1.44 1.06–1.95 0.021 0.79 0.50–1.23 0.286 1.41 0.85–2.34 0.179
 Retired 1.15 0.93–1.43 0.200 1.10 0.83–1.45 0.523 1.26 0.85–1.85 0.249 0.89 0.57–1.39 0.605
 Keeping house 0.82 0.67–1.01 0.057 1.13 0.87–1.46 0.350 1.38 0.95–2.00 0.089 0.95 0.62–1.47 0.831
 Other 1.07 0.82–1.39 0.633 1.35 0.96–1.89 0.085 1.11 0.71–1.72 0.651 0.78 0.48–1.28 0.324
Family income
 $0–$9999 1    1    1    1   
 $10,000–$19,999 1.27 1.07–1.51 0.007 0.84 0.65–1.07 0.162 1.15 0.77–1.74 0.492 1.13 0.76–1.68 0.536
 $20,000–$29,999 1.58 1.29–1.95 < 0.001 0.96 0.72–1.27 0.756 1.54 0.97–2.45 0.067 1.11 0.66–1.87 0.698
 $30,000–$49,999 1.80 1.46–2.22 < 0.001 0.87 0.65–1.17 0.358 1.42 0.91–2.23 0.122 1.14 0.73–1.78 0.557
 $50,000+ 2.78 2.17–3.57 < 0.001 0.81 0.58–1.13 0.211 1.42 0.89–2.26 0.137 1.03 0.49–2.15 0.940
Financial situation
 Not satisfied at all 1    1    1   
 More or less satisfied 0.92 0.80–1.06 0.267 1.00 0.83–1.21 0.962 0.70 0.52–0.96 0.028
 Pretty well satisfied 1.03 0.87–1.21 0.772 1.00 0.81–1.24 0.978 0.79 0.53–1.17 0.234
Social class
 Lower class 1    1    1    1   
 Working class 1.20 0.94–1.53 0.145 1.20 0.86–1.69 0.285 1.21 0.64–2.30 0.558 1.02 0.65–1.62 0.916
 Middle class 1.52 1.16–1.97 0.002 1.03 0.73–1.46 0.870 1.35 0.71–2.57 0.359 0.69 0.43–1.12 0.132
 Upper class 1.52 0.99–2.35 0.058 0.92 0.56–1.50 0.743 1.67 0.77–3.62 0.195 0.29 0.08–1.09 0.066
Years of education 1.19 1.16–1.22 < 0.001 1.08 1.05–1.12 < 0.001 1.15 1.10–1.20 < 0.001 1.11 1.05–1.17 < 0.001
Parental years of education 1.05 1.04–1.07 < 0.001 1.05 1.02–1.07 < 0.001 1.04 1.01–1.08 0.019 1.03 0.99–1.08 0.147
General health rating
 Excellent 1    1    1   
 Good 0.88 0.75–1.03 0.121 0.95 0.79–1.14 0.577 1.02 0.67–1.55 0.917
 Fair 0.70 0.58–0.85 < 0.001 0.92 0.71–1.18 0.492 1.30 0.84–2.02 0.243
 Poor 0.48 0.34–0.67 < 0.001 0.91 0.63–1.33 0.634 1.38 0.74–2.56 0.309
Level of urbanicity
 Med-large city 1    1    1    1   
 Suburb 0.92 0.79–1.08 0.311 1.18 0.98–1.42 0.075 1.06 0.82–1.38 0.666 1.12 0.77–1.63 0.558
 Unincorporated area 0.79 0.64–0.96 0.020 0.96 0.75–1.24 0.771 1.22 0.89–1.67 0.225 1.15 0.77–1.73 0.495
 Small city or town 0.69 0.58–0.83 < 0.001 1.08 0.84–1.41 0.538 1.20 0.88–1.64 0.255 1.19 0.77–1.85 0.436
 Smaller areas 0.57 0.47–0.69 < 0.001 0.98 0.75–1.28 0.874 0.96 0.63–1.45 0.836 0.63 0.39–1.02 0.061
Household size 0.95 0.90–0.99 0.030 1.02 0.95–1.09 0.572 0.99 0.91–1.08 0.811 0.96 0.87–1.05 0.350
Feels afraid in neighborhood 1.06 0.91–1.24 0.463 0.97 0.80–1.17 0.714 1.11 0.79–1.56 0.536
Survey year
 1 1    1    1    1   
 2 2.02 1.69–2.40 < 0.001 0.89 0.74–1.06 0.194 0.73 0.52–1.03 0.074 1.04 0.79–1.38 0.757
 3 2.27 1.88–2.73 < 0.001 1.05 0.88–1.26 0.568 0.77 0.60–0.99 0.045
 4 1.25 1.06–1.48 0.008 0.68 0.54–0.87 0.002
 5 1.05 0.87–1.26 0.624
  1. Note. Survey year refers to different years for each arts outcome: for events 1 = 1993, 2 = 1998, 3 = 2002, 4 = 2012, 5 = 2016; for activities 1 = 1993, 2 = 1998, 3 = 2002; for groups 1 = 1993, 2 = 1994, 3 = 2004, 4 = 2010; and for interested non-attendees 1 = 2012, 2 = 2016. These numbers have been added for ease of presentation; years were used in analyses. For odds ratios, 1 indicates the reference category