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Table 3 Included peer-reviewed articles and grey literature

From: The pathways between natural disasters and violence against children: a systematic review

   Selected quality markers
Data source Country and disaster Violence type Age range of children Co-occurrence of a man-made disaster Appropriate methodological design Relationship between researcher and respondents considered Ethical issues considered Data analysis rigorous Risk of bias quality score
Peer-reviewed articles
 Biswas et al. [15] Bangladesh; 2007 floods Physical; emotional Under 18 N Y N N N (qualitative)
Y (quantitative)
4 (qualitative) 8 (quantitative)
 Catani et al. [20] Sri Lanka; 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Physical; emotional; sexual 9–15 Y Y N N Y 6 (quantitative)
 Curtis et al. [50] United States; 1989 Hurricane Hugo; 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake; 1992 Hurricane Andrew Physical; emotional; sexual Under 18 N N N N N 1 (qualitative)
 Davis and Bookey [53] Haiti; 2010 earthquake Sexual 5–18 N Y N N N 2 (qualitative)
 Fisher [55] Sri Lanka; 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Sexual Not reported N N Not reported Not reported Not reported 3 (qualitative)
 Rashid and Michaud [49] Bangladesh; 1998 floods Sexual 15–18 Y Y Y Y Y 8 (qualitative)
 Scott et al. [52] United States; 2005 Hurricane Katrina Emotional (bullying) 8–15 N Y N Y Y 9 (quantitative)
 Standing et al. [54] Nepal; 2015 earthquake Sexual Under 18 N Y N N N 3 (qualitative)
 Terranova et al. [51] United States; 2005 Hurricane Katrina Physical and emotional (bullying) Fifth graders (mean: age 10) N Y N N Y 8 (quantitative)
Grey literature
 CARE Ethiopia Emergency Unit [71] Ethiopia; 2015-present drought Sexual Not reported N Y N N N 5 (qualitative)
 Child Protection Sub-Cluster [56] Philippines; 2012 Typhoon Bopha Physical - younger children; sexual - in households Not reported Y N Not reported Not reported N 5 (qualitative)
 Civil Protection Zimbabwe [70] Zimbabwe; 2017 Tropical Cyclone Dineo Sexual (particularly ages 5–18) Under 18 N Y N N N 5 (qualitative)
 Government of Bangladesh and Humanitarian Coordination Task Team of Bangladesh [67] Bangladesh; 2017 floods Physical; sexual Under 18 N Y N N Y 8 (qualitative)
 International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies [57] Laos, Indonesia, and Philippines; 2016 Oudomxay Floods and 2009 Typhoon Ketsana in Sekong; 2016 Aceh Earthquake and 2016 Aceh and Bima Flash Floods; 2013 Typhoon Haiyan Sexual Not reported Y (Philippines) Y N N Y 7 (qualitative)
 Jinks and Komenji [58] Papua New Guinea; 2016 frost and drought Physical Not reported N Not reported Not reported Not reported N 1 (qualitative)
 Ministry of International Affairs of the Government of the Kingdom of Tonga and Pacific Humanitarian Cluster [61] Tonga; 2014 Cyclone Ian Physical Not reported N Y Not reported Not reported Not reported 6 (qualitative)
 Oxfam and CARE Ethiopia [69] Ethiopia; 2015-present drought Emotional; sexual Not reported N Y N N Y 8 (qualitative)
 People in Need Czech Republic [62] Nepal; 2015 earthquake Physical; sexual Under 18 N Y N N N 6 (qualitative)
 People in Need Czech Republic [63] Nepal; 2015 earthquake Sexual School-aged girls, grades 6–10 N Y N N Y 6 (qualitative)
 Plan International, Save the Children, United Nations Children’s Fund and World Vision [64] Nepal; 2015 earthquake Emotional; sexual 8–12 and 13–18 N Y N N Y 8 (qualitative)
 Polack [59] Kenya; 2006–2009 drought Sexual Under 18 Y Y N N N 4 (qualitative)
 Save the Children [65] Mongolia; 2016–2017 dzud Bullying 6–16 in FGD and not reported N Y N N N 4 (qualitative)
 Save the Children [72] Somalia; 2015-present drought Physical; sexual Not reported Y Y N N N 6 (qualitative)
 Save the Children [66] Papua New Guinea; 2014–2015 drought Physical; sexual Not reported N Y N N N 6 (qualitative)
 Save the Children [68] Kenya; 2011–2012 East Africa drought Physical; sexual 10–11 and 12–16 in FGD and not reported Y Y N N N 4 (qualitative)
 United Nations Population Fund and Ministère à la Condition féminine et aux Droits des femmes [60] Haiti; 2016 Hurricane Matthew Sexual 15–18 N Y Not reported N N 4 (qualitative)
  1. Y Yes and N No. In the case that a dataset included people over the age of 18, the age range indicates the viable sample of respondents under the age of 18 that was utilized for analysis. The Uppsala Conflict Data Program [73] was referenced to confirm the presence of man-made disasters in the same country, region, and timeframe