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Table 1 Operational definitions of violence

From: The pathways between natural disasters and violence against children: a systematic review

Violence form Definition
Physical violence “… all corporal punishment and all other forms of torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment as well as physical bullying and hazing by adults or by other children”
Emotional violence “Psychological maltreatment, mental abuse, verbal abuse and emotional abuse”
Sexual violence “… any sexual activities imposed by an adult on a child against which the child is entitled to protection under criminal law” or “… committed against a child by another child if the offender is significantly older than the victim or uses power, threat or other means of pressure”
  1. From: United Nations Children’s Fund [37], p. 4