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Table 1 Measures with their associated cost and effectiveness (adopted from [42])

From: COVID-19 pandemic spread against countries’ non-pharmaceutical interventions responses: a data-mining driven comparative study

Category Measure Effectiveness Direct cost Secondary effect
Travel measures Travel advice Minimal Small Large
Entry screening Minimal Large Moderate
Border closure Minimal unless rapid Massive Massive
Personal protective measures Regular hand-washing Self-evident Moderate None
Respiratory hygiene Self-evident Small Small
General mask-wearing No evidence Massive Small
Mask-wearing in healthcare settings Unknown Moderate Small
Mask-wearing in other high-risk situations Unknown Moderate Small
Mask-wearing by people with respiratory symptoms Unknown Moderate Perverse effects
Voluntary isolation of cases not requiring hospitalization Self-evident Moderate Moderate
Voluntary quarantine of household contacts Self-evident Massive Massive
Social distancing measures Internal travel restrictions Minor delaying effect Major Massive
Educational measures Reactive school and day care closures Positive effects Moderate Massive
Proactive school and day care closures Positive effects Moderate Massive
Workplace and public place measures Reactive workplace closures No evidence Massive Major
Home working No evidence Variable to moderate Variable to moderate
Cancelling public gathering, events Positive effects Major Major