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Table 3 Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and heart failure among older adults with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF)a: Hawaii Medicare data 2009–2017

From: The impact of diabetes and osteoarthritis on the occurrence of stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure among older adults with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in Hawaii: a retrospective observational cohort study

  Stroke
HR (95% CI)      Pb
AMI
HR (95% CI)      Pb
Heart Failure
HR (95% CI)      Pb
Diabetes (DM)/osteoarthritis (OA) status (ref: without DM/OA)
 With DM 1.29 (1.18–1.41)  <.001 1.31 (1.15–1.49)   <.001 1.34 (1.26–1.41)      <.001
 With OA 1.04 (0.92–1.18)       0.496 0.96 (0.79–1.17)         0.711  0.98 (0.90–1.06)        0.583
 With DM/OA 1.02 (0.87–1.19)       0.830 1.15 (0.93–1.41)        0.193 1.21 (1.10–1.33)     <.001
Age group (ref: 65–74 years)
 75–84 years 1.51 (1.39–1.65)  <.001 1.40 (1.22–1.59)    <.001 1.27 (1.21–1.34)    <.001
  ≥85 years 1.84 (1.66–2.03)  <.001 1.64 (1.40–1.92)    <.001 1.64 (1.54–1.74)     <.001
Gender (ref: Male)
 Female 1.12 (1.04–1.20)    0.004 0.85 (0.76–0.96)      0.006 0.94 (0.90–0.98)        0.006
Race/ethnicity (ref: White)
 Asian 1.10 (1.00–1.21)      0.054 1.12 (0.96–1.30)          0.145 1.05 (0.99–1.11)         0.132
 Pacific Islander 1.04 (0.94–1.15)      0.471 1.02 (0.87–1.20)          0.801 0.95 (0.89–1.01)        0.102
 Hispanic 1.09 (0.91–1.30)      0.364 1.43 (1.12–1.82)        0.004 1.05 (0.94–1.17)        0.374
 Other 1.07 (0.95–1.22)      0.269 1.13 (0.93–1.36)          0.222 1.07 (0.99–1.15)        0.079
Residency (ref: other island)
 Oahu 1.10 (1.02–1.20)      0.019 0.99 (0.88–1.36)           0.935 0.88 (0.84–0.92)         <.001
Dual eligibilityc (ref: No)
 Yes 0.91 (0.82–1.01)      0.086 0.87 (0.74–1.02)           0.089 1.08 (1.01–1.15)        0.017
Hypertension (ref: No)
 Yes 1.11 (1.02–1.22)      0.023 1.67 (1.42–1.98)       <.001 1.14 (1.08–1.21)        <.001
Hyperlipidemia (ref: No)
 Yes 0.92 (0.84–1.00)      0.042 1.29 (1.13–1.48)       <.001 0.74 (0.71–0.78)         <.001
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ref: No)
 Yes 0.94 (0.84–1.06)      0.310 1.12 (0.96–1.31)          0.143 1.43 (1.35–1.52)        <.001
Dementia (ref: No)
 Yes 1.28 (1.14–1.44)  <.001 1.11 (0.93–1.33)          0.263 0.95 (0.88–1.03)         0.201
Chronic Kidney Disease (ref: No)
 Yes 0.91 (0.83–1.00)     0.053 NA NA
  1. a Older adults with NVAF had no stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure at baseline (n = 19,588).b P-values were obtained by testing the significance of regression coefficients in the Cox proportional hazards regression models.  c Dual eligible for Medicare and Medicaid for at least 12 consecutive months over the study period. Note. The model for stroke included DM/OA status, age group, gender, race/ethnicity, residency, dual eligibility, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and chronic kidney disease. The models for AMI and stroke included DM/OA status, age group, gender, race/ethnicity, residency, dual eligibility, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and were stratified by chronic kidney disease (No/Yes)