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Table 3 The association between informal caregiving and clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety by informal caregiving (n = 9340a)

From: Informal care and the impact on depression and anxiety among Swedish adults: a population-based cohort study

  No. of participants No. of cases Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)b
Model 1 Model 2
Diagnosed depression
 No caregiving 8558 214 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Caregiving without limitations 312 5 0.64 (0.26–1.56) 0.71 (0.29–1.74)
 Caregiving with limitations 470 23 1.98 (1.29–3.04) 1.97 (1.27–3.05)
Diagnosed anxiety
 No caregiving 8558 152 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 Caregiving without limitations 312 4 0.72 (0.27–1.95) 0.91 (0.33–2.46)
 Caregiving with limitations 470 14 1.68 (0.97–2.90) 1.86 (1.06–3.25)
  1. aSix participants were excluded because the diagnosis of the outcome occurred before assessment of the exposure
  2. bModel 1 was a crude model; model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, social support and socio-economic position