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Table 2 The association between informal caregiving and self-reported depressive symptoms and anxious distress at baseline and 10-year follow-up

From: Informal care and the impact on depression and anxiety among Swedish adults: a population-based cohort study

  No. of participants No. of cases Odds ratios (95% confidence interval)a
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Baseline (n = 9346)
Self-reported depressive symptoms
  No caregiving 8562 1683 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)  
  Caregiving without limitations 312 53 0.83 (0.62–1.12) 0.96 (0.70–1.32)  
  Caregiving with limitations 472 146 1.85 (1.52–2.26) 2.00 (1.63–2.47)  
Self-reported anxious distress
  No caregiving 8562 714 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)  
  Caregiving without limitations 312 20 0.76 (0.48–1.20) 0.89 (0.55–1.45)  
  Caregiving with limitations 472 69 1.91 (1.46–2.49) 2.07 (1.57–2.74)  
10-year follow-up (n = 5108)
Self-reported depressive symptoms
  No caregiving 4626 721 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
  Caregiving without limitations 197 22 0.68 (0.44–1.07) 0.82 (0.52–1.31) 0.86 (0.53–1.40)
  Caregiving with limitations 285 60 1.43 (1.07–1.91) 1.44 (1.06–1.96) 1.13 (0.81–1.57)
Self-reported anxious distress
  No caregiving 4626 269 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
  Caregiving without limitations 197 10 0.87 (0.45–1.66) 1.04 (0.53–2.03) 1.11 (0.56–2.19)
  Caregiving with limitations 285 24 1.49 (0.97–2.31) 1.52 (0.96–2.41) 1.23 (0.76–1.99)
  1. aModel 1 was a crude model; model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, social support and socio-economic position; model 3 was additionally adjusted for baseline MDI or rating scale for anxious distress for each outcome respectively