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Table 4 Association between the COVID-19 case fatality rate and previous PM2.5 concentrations in 24 districts of Lima

From: Association between air pollution in Lima and the high incidence of COVID-19: findings from a post hoc analysis

COVID-19 fatality rate Crude coefficient 95%CI Adjusted coefficient 95%CI
PM2.5 − 0.014 − 0.056 0.029 0.01 −0.047 0.068
Sex ratio −0.303 −2.569 1.963 −1.956 −5.207 1.293
Age 0.043 −0.049 0.135 0.035 −0.039 0.11
Food markets 1.082 −0.257 2.422 0.0054 −0.001 0.012
Population density 0.00001 −6.21e-06 .000035 0.00003 −2.60e-06 0.00006
  1. The model was adjusted for PM2.5 level, sex ratio (female cases: male cases), age [years], and food markets (number of food markets per district and population density at the COVID-19 diagnosis). Data for the PM2.5 level (μg/m3) correspond to the average data per district obtained daily from 2012 to 2016
  2. p > 0.05