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Table 2 Association between COVID-19 case/population density and previous PM2.5 concentrations in 24 districts of Lima

From: Association between air pollution in Lima and the high incidence of COVID-19: findings from a post hoc analysis

COVID-19 case/population density Crude coefficient 95%CI Adjusted coefficient 95%CI
PM2.5 0.083** 0.050 0.115 0.070** 0.034 0.107
Sex ratio −3.133* −5.329 −0.937 −2.157 −5.127 0.812
Age −0.080 −0.181 0.021 0.047 −0.064 0.158
Food markets 1.269 −0.259 2.796 0.242 −0.973 1.457
  1. The model was adjusted for PM2.5 level, sex ratio (female cases: male cases), and food markets (number of food markets per district and age [years] at the COVID-19 diagnosis). Data for the PM2.5 level (μg/m3) correspond to the average data per district obtained daily from 2012 to 2016
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01