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Table 2 Disease frequency measures by SEP and sex, and Prevalence ratio (PR) or Incidence proportion ratio (IR) (boys compared to girls) of children in Catalonia

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in 29 childhood diseases: evidence from a 1,500,000 children population retrospective study

  PR/IR Period prevalence/ Incidence proportion
  Boys vs girls Boys Girls
   Very low SEP Low SEP Medium SEP High SEP Very low SEP Low SEP Medium SEP High SEP
Disease PR/IR (95% CI) p-value N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Infectious diseases
 Tuberculosisa 0.92 (0.79, 1.07) 33 (0.10) 243 (0.05) 47 (0.02) 0 (0.00) 44 (0.15) 229 (0.05) 53 (0.02) 0 (0.00)
 Meningitis (bacterial or viral)a 1.57 (1.36, 1.80)*** 33 (0.10) 330 (0.07) 142 (0.06) 1 (0.02) 12 (0.04) 196 (0.04) 97 (0.04) 1 (0.01)
 Influenzaa 1.05 (1.04, 1.06)*** 3257 (10.29) 40,304 (8.65) 19,581 (8.06) 234 (3.91) 2940 (10.02) 36,172 (8.25) 17,580 (7.64) 217 (3.73)
Neoplasms
 Cancer of the brain and nervous system 1.09 (0.90, 1.32) 18 (0.06) 133 (0.03) 75 (0.03) 0 (0.00) 6 (0.02) 126 (0.03) 58 (0.03) 4 (0.06)
 Leukaemia 1.26 (1.06, 1.48)** 17 (0.05) 196 (0.04) 105 (0.04) 4 (0.07) 8 (0.03) 157 (0.04) 74 (0.03) 1 (0.02)
 Malignant neoplasms 1.08 (1.02, 1.15)* 129 (0.41) 1402 (0.30) 667 (0.27) 9 (0.15) 107 (0.36) 1231 (0.28) 572 (0.259 8 (0.14)
Anthropometrics
 Overweight 1.06 (1.05, 1.08)*** 3809 (18.77) 44,974 (17.52) 20,602 (14.23) 267 (5.93) 3252 (17.24) 38,425 (15.80) 16,985 (12.30) 228 (5.30)
 Obesity 1.33 (1.32, 1.35)*** 2159 (10.64) 23,454 (9.14) 8886 (6.14) 78 (1.73) 1530 (8.11) 16,237 (6.71) 5880 (4.27) 57 (1.32)
Mental health
 Mood disorders 0.87 (0.83, 0.91)*** 164 (0.52) 2144 (0.46) 780 (0.32) 10 (0.17) 200 (0.68) 2325 (0.53) 823 (0.36) 10 (0.17)
 Adjustment and anxiety disorders 1.06 (1.04, 1.08)*** 1788 (5.65) 21,098 (4.53) 7596 (3.13) 56 (0.94) 1638 (5.58) 18,764 (4.28) 6682 (2.91) 47 (0.82)
 ADHD 2.70 (2.63, 2.76)*** 1323 (4.18) 16,443 (3.53) 7790 (3.20) 139 (2.32) 437 (1.49) 5863 (1.34) 2627 (1.14) 46 (0.79)
 ASD 4.66 (4.39, 4.94)*** 321 (1.01) 4154 (0.89) 2006 (0.83) 21 (0.35) 68 (0.23) 844 (0.19) 401 (0.17) 2 (0.04)
Autoimmune and respiratory diseases
 Acute bronchitisa 1.21 (1.20, 1.21)*** 7014 (22.17) 87,062 (18.60) 41,963 (17.26) 669 (11.16) 5471 (18.64) 68,208 (15.50) 32,929 (14.30) 476 (8.20)
 Chronic bronchitis 1.22 (1.21, 1.23)*** 3285 (10.38) 40.515 (8.70) 19,404 (7.98) 282 (4.71) 2560 (8.72) 31,430 (7.17) 14,976 (6.51) 201 (3.46)
 Asthma 1.47 (1.45, 1.49)*** 2460 (7.77) 32,359 (6.95) 16,639 (6.85) 232 (3.87) 1641 (5.59) 21,122 (4.82) 10,298 (4.48) 128 (2.20)
 Respiratory allergy 1.13 (1.12, 1.14)*** 1677 (5.30) 22,128 (4.75) 9797 (4.03) 125 (2.09) 1310 (4.46) 15,929 (3.63) 6640 (2.89) 79 (1.36)
 Dermatitis 0.94 (0.93, 0.94)*** 7610 (24.05) 102,065 (21.92) 47,832 (19.68) 668 (11.15) 7886 (26.87) 106,201 (24.23) 48,956 (21.28) 687 (11.82)
 Food allergy 1.08 (1.06, 1.10)*** 316 (1.00) 5502 (1.18) 3811 (1.57) 58 (0.96) 240 (0.82) 5073 (1.16) 3640 (1.58) 59 (1.01)
 Cystic fibrosis 1.00 (0.79, 1.28) 3 (0.01) 83 (0.02) 46 (0.02) 1 (0.01) 5 (0.02) 75 (0.02) 44 (0.02) 2 (0.04)
Adverse birth outcomes
 Short gestation, low birth weight, foetal growth retardation 1.04 (1.01, 1.08)* 320 (1.01) 4795 (1.03) 1677 (0.69) 30 (0.50) 310 (1.05) 4276 (0.98) 1568 (0.68) 28 (0.49)
 Intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia and trauma 1.37 (1.29, 1.45)*** 173 (0.55) 2102 (0.45) 746 (0.31) 8 (0.14) 85 (0.29) 1480 (0.34) 506 (0.22) 0 (0.00)
 Congenital anomalies 1.18 (1.16, 1.19)*** 3343 (10.57) 46,752 (10.04) 21,640 (8.90) 265 (4.42) 2398 (8.17) 36,981 (8.44) 18,183 (7.91) 232 (3.99)
Nervous system
 Paralysis 1.24 (1.14, 1.36)*** 71 (0.22) 760 (0.16) 306 (0.13) 3 (0.05) 64 (0.22) 544 (0.12) 252 (0.11) 4 (0.07)
 Epilepsy 1.16 (1.10, 1.21)*** 217 (0.68) 2555 (0.55) 1139 (0.47) 28 (0.46) 175 (0.60) 2024 (0.46) 996 (0.43) 9 (0.16)
Circulatory system
 Essential hypertension 1.28 (1.18, 1.38)*** 70 (0.22) 1001 (0.22) 343 (0.14) 4 (0.06) 56 (0.19) 731 (0.17) 256 (0.11) 3 (0.05)
 Heart valve disorders 1.18 (1.16, 1.20)*** 1054 (3.33) 15,078 (3.24) 7584 (3.12) 97 (1.61) 899 (3.06) 11,970 (2.73) 6075 (2.64) 83 (1.43)
 Acute cerebrovascular disease 1.39 (1.23, 1.57)*** 32 (0.10) 413 (0.09) 173 (0.07) 3 (0.06) 22 (0.07) 269 (0.06) 130 (0.06) 3 (0.06)
Others
 Injuriesa 1.18 (1.17, 1.18)*** 13,453 (42.52) 16,4317 (35.28) 78,687 (32.37) 1292 (21.57) 10,493 (35.75) 130,995 (29.89) 63,419 (27.57) 990 (17.04)
 Poisoninga 0.99 (0.92, 1.06) 123 (0.39) 1094 (0.23) 438 (0.18) 10 (0.17) 119 (0.41) 1089 (0.25) 372 (0.16) 15 (0.27)
  1. Note: Age-adjusted frequency measures by SEP were calculated according the chronic or acute profile of each disease: aIncidence proportion only for acute bronchitis, influenza, injuries, meningitis, poisoning and tuberculosis, or Period prevalence for the rest of diseases. (Incidence proportion accounts for the number of new cases of the disease and Period prevalence includes all cases of the disease (new and preexisting) during the period)
  2. ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASD Autism spectrum disorder
  3. p-value: *(≤0.05), **(≤0.01), ***(≤0.001)