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Table 4 Estimation results: Driscoll-Kraay [38] standard errors

From: Is industrial pollution detrimental to public health? Evidence from the world’s most industrialised countries

Models 1 2
Constant −8.8219 (−5.86)*** −6.6460 (− 6.57)***
CO2 0.0988 (5.67)***
NIT 0.0687 (4.13)***
GDP − 0.0648 (−2.56)** −0.0757 (− 3.80)***
PHY − 0.1214 (−5.41)*** − 0.1302 (− 7.12)***
URB − 0.1311 (− 2.00)** − 0.1723 (− 2.30)**
WAT 3.1370 (7.06)*** 2.4197 (7.68)***
SAN − 0.4528 (−6.41)*** − 0.3938 (− 6.28)***
SCH − 0.1003 (− 3.58)*** 0.0473 (1.46)
within R-squared 0.4945 0.4550
F-statistic 606.57 414.64
Probability 0.0000 0.0000
Number of groups 19a 19
Number of observations 225 197
  1. Note: *** and ** denote significance level at 1 and 5%, respectively
  2. aJapan does not have the secondary school enrolment data for the studied period, therefore, the statistical software and estimation techniques used in this study exclude Japan from this analysis.