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Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratio showing the relationship of explanatory variables between paid for catastrophic dental healthcare expenditure of households in Iran

From: The impact of out-of pocket payments of households for dental healthcare services on catastrophic healthcare expenditure in Iran

  Crude odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
Overall householdsa 4.3 (3.8–4.9)* 6.2 (5.4–7.1)*
Urban/rural statusb
 Urban area 5.8 (4.9–6.9)* 7.8 (6.4–9.4)*
 Rural area 3.4 (2.8–4.2)* 4.7 (3.7–5.7)*
Province category based on HDIc
 Low 3.6 (2.8–4.8)* 5.5 (4.1–7.4)*
 Medium 3.8 (3.1–4.7)* 5.6 (4.5–7.1)*
 High 5.5 (4.4–6.9)* 7.4 (5.9–9.5)*
  1. Note: a adjusted for age of household head, gender of head of household, education status of head of household, health insurance coverage, households with under 5 year old children, member of 66 years and above, wealth index of household, residence, and province category based on HDI; b adjusted for age of head of household, gender of head of household, education status of head of household, health insurance coverage, households with under 5 year old children, member of 66 years and above, wealth index of household and province category based on HD; c adjusted for age of head of household, gender of head of household, education status of head of household, health insurance coverage, member of 5 years and under, member of 66 years and above, wealth index of household and residing of area. * Significant level < 0.001