Skip to main content

Table 2 Catastrophic healthcare expenditure among households by status of dental care services use during 2018 in Iran

From: The impact of out-of pocket payments of households for dental healthcare services on catastrophic healthcare expenditure in Iran

Variables Percentage of households with CHE (95% CI)
Used dental care Did not use
Demographic variables
Sex of household head
  Male 16.1 (14.4–17.9) 4.0 (3.8–4.2)
  Female 22.1 (16.2–29.4) 6.7 (6.1–7.4)
Age of household head (years)
  15–45 14.9 (12.7–17.4) 2.7 (2.5–2.9)
  46–65 17.1 (14.5–19.9) 3.9 (3.5–4.2)
    66 22.9 (17.3–29.9) 9.1 (8.4–9.7)
Household had ≤ 5-year old child
  Yes 15.8 (12.8–19.4) 2.7 (2.4–3.1)
  No 16.8 (14.9–18.9) 4.9 (4.6–5.2)
Household had ≥ 66-year old members
  Yes 19.2 (14.6–24.8) 8.7 (8.1–9.4)
  No 16.2 (14.4–18.1) 3.2 (2.9–3.4)
Socioeconomic variables
Educational status of household head
  Illiterate 20.3 (15.2–26.5) 8.0 (7.5–8.6)
  Literate 16.1 (14.4–17.9) 3.1 (2.9–3.4)
Wealth index of households
  Poorest 20.5 (14.7–27.8) 6.5 (5.9–7.1)
  Poor 19.8 (15.3–25.1) 5.8 (5.4–6.4)
  Middle 15.2 (11.6–19.5) 3.5 (3.1–4.0)
  Rich 16.8 (13.8–20.5) 3.3 (2.9–3.8)
  Richest 14.8 (12.2–17.8) 2.3 (2.0–2.7)
Insurance coverage
  Yes 16.6 (14.9–18.4) 4.4 (4.2–4.7)
  No 16.3 (11.2–23.1) 3.6 (3.1–4.2)
Ecological variables
Geographical location of household
  Urban 16.4 (14.4–18.7) 3.2 (3.0–3.5)
  Rural 16.8 (14.1–19.8) 5.6 (5.2–5.9)
HDI of province
  Low 13.4 (10.6–16.7) 4.1 (3.7–4.4)
  Medium 17.2 (14.6–20.1) 5.1 (4.7–5.5)
  High 18.3 (15.5–21.5) 3.9 (3.6–4.2)
  1. Note: HDI is human development index; CI is the confidence interval; CHE is the catastrophic healthcare expenditure