Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected U.S. county characteristics based on six-month cumulative incidence rate (n = 3142)

From: Race, ethnicity, poverty and the social determinants of the coronavirus divide: U.S. county-level disparities and risk factors

  Six-month Cumulative Incidence Rate
Low (n = 1048) Moderate (n = 1047) High (n = 1047) p valuea
Range of six-month cumulative coronavirus incidence per 100,000 0–281 282–761 761–13,674  
Mean six-month cumulative coronavirus incidence per 100,000 (SD) 149 (79) 487 (136) 1616 (1091) < 0.001
Mean six-month cumulative coronavirus mortality per 100,000 (SD) 2.7 (5.7) 12.3 (16.8) 44.2 (51.1) < 0.001
Mean days since index case (SD) 93.5 (36.0) 112.1 (18.8) 117.6 (12.7) < 0.001
Mean percent in poverty (SD) 14.7 (5.7) 14.3 (5.8) 17.8 (7.2) < 0.001
Mean percent in each racial/ethnic group (SD)
 White 91.2 (12.1) 87.9 (11.2) 74.2 (19.3) < 0.001
 Black 2.2 (4.0) 6.1 (8.6) 9.7 (19.2) < 0.001
 Hispanic 5.7 (8.5) 8.9 (12.7) 14.3 (17.5) 0.0001
 Asian 1.1 (3.1) 1.6 (3.0) 2.0 (2.7) < 0.001
 Native American 3.0 (9.1) 2.0 (5.9) 2.0 (7.8) 0.0022
 Two or more races 2.0 (1.9) 2.3 (1.5) 2.1 (1.0) 0.0001
Mean percent in each age group (SD)
  ≤ 17 years 21.4 (3.6) 22.3 (3.2) 23.3 (3.4) 0.2957
 18–64 years (ref.) 58.1 (4.1) 59.4 (3.7) 60.3 (3.5) < 0.001
  ≥ 65 years 20.4 (4.7) 18.2 (4.3) 16.4 (3.8) < 0.001
Mean percent in each sex group (SD)
 Male (ref.) 50.5 (2.2) 49.9 (1.7) 49.9 (2.8) < 0.001
 Female 49.5 (2.2) 50.1 (1.7) 50.1 (2.8) < 0.001
Mean percent tested in state (SD) 12.6 (4.2) 12.6 (3.6) 13.1 (3.9) 0.0014
Mean percent of test results that are positive (SD) 9.1 (5.5) 9.9 (4.9) 10.3 (4.8) < 0.001
Rurality (%)     < 0.001
 Large central metropolitan areas (ref.) 5 (0.5) 12 (1) 51 (5)  
 Large fringe metropolitan 53 (5) 150 (14) 165 (16)  
 Medium metropolitan 70 (7) 146 (14) 156 (15)  
 Small metropolitan 84 (8) 149 (14) 125 (12)  
 Micropolitan 213 (20) 213 (20) 215 (21)  
 Non-core areas 623 (60) 377 (36) 335 (32)  
Economic characteristics
 Mean percent unemployed (SD) 5.4 (2.9) 5.3 (2.3) 6.6 (3.1) < 0.001
 Mean percent without high school diploma (SD) 11.4 (5.3) 12.4 (6.0) 16.4 (6.6) < 0.001
 Mean percent of households with housing cost burden (SD) 10.2 (3.5) 10.5 (3.2) 12.4 (3.8) < 0.001
 Mean percent of single parent households (SD) 7.3 (2.7) 8.0 (2.2) 9.7 (2.8) < 0.001
 Mean percent with limited English proficiency (SD) 0.8 (1.5) 1.4 (2.4) 2.9 (3.6) < 0.001
Housing and transit characteristics
 Mean percent crowded households (SD) 2.1 (3.0) 2.1 (1.6) 3.0 (2.3) 0.0155
 Mean percent of households without vehicle (SD) 6.2 (5.7) 5.7 (3.0) 7.1 (4.2) < 0.001
 Mean percent of households in multi-unit buildings (SD) 3.3 (4.2) 4.7 (4.9) 6.0 (7.3) < 0.001
Population health and health care characteristics
 Mean preventable hospitalization rateb (SD) 4602 (2044) 4694 (1602) 5272 (1785) < 0.001
 Mean percent uninsured (SD) 10.6 (4.7) 10.7 (5.2) 13.1 (5.13) < 0.001
 Mean diabetes prevalence (SD) 11.6 (3.7) 11.9 (3.9) 12.9 (4.4) < 0.001
 Mean obesity prevalence (SD) 32.2 (5.1) 32.7 (5.1) 33.7 (6.1) < 0.001
 Mean smoking prevalence (SD) 17.3 (3.8) 17.2 (3.4) 17.9 (3.6) < 0.001
 Mean rate of primary care providersb (SD) 54.0 (36.6) 55.4 (37.5) 54.1 (31.5) 0.6089
 Mean hospital rateb (SD) 7.6 (11.7) 4.5 (7.7) 3.7 (5.7) < 0.001
 Mean ICU beds rateb (SD) 11.9 (90.2) 12.3 (19.1) 15.9 (20.5) 0.1711
  1. aObtained from ANOVA
  2. bRate is number per 100,000 population