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Table 4 Prevalence estimates of HCS among current smokers and entire survey population, their 95% CIs in ten countries; absolute difference and percentage change between baseline and most recent GATS

From: Changes in adult smoking behaviours in ten global adult tobacco survey (GATS) countries during 2008–2018 - a test of ‘hardening’ hypothesis’

  HCS among current smokers (HCSs%) HCS in the entire survey population (HCSp%)
Men Women Both sexes Men Women Both sexes
India 2009 18.4 (16.8, 20.0) 10.4 (7.2, 13.5) 18.0 (16.1, 19.0) 4.5 (4.0, 4.9) 0.3 (0.2, 0.4) 2.5 (2.2, 2.7)
India 2016 15.8 (14.3, 17.3) 8.8 (5.4, 12.2) 15.2 (13.8, 16.5) 3.0 (2.7, 3.28) 0.2 (0.1, 0.2) 1.6 (1.5, 1.8)
Absolute change −2.6 −1.6 − 2.8 −1.46 −0.2 − 0.8
% change −14.3 − 15.0 − 15.6 −32.7 − 45.2 −34.2
P-value 0.020 0.50 0.006 < 0.001 0.079 < 0.001
Bangladesh 2009 16.7 (14.1, 19.3) 15.0 (1.5, 28.5) 32.2 (31.1, 33.3) 7.5 (6.2, 8.7) 0.2 (0.1, 0.5) 3.8 (3.4, 4.3)
Bangladesh 2017 14.5 (11.9, 17.0) 11.8 (1.3, 22.2) 14.4 (11.9, 16.9) 4.8 (3.9, 5.6) 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 2.4 (2.0, 2.8)
Absolute change −2.2 −3.2 −17.8 − 2.7 −0.2 − 1.5
% change − 13.1 −21.3 −55.2 −35.8 − 65.2 − 37.9
P-value 0.242 0.713 < 0.001 0.001 0.153 < 0.001
China 2010 32.3 (31.1, 33.3) 30.9 (27.1, 34.8) 35.5 (34.5, 36.5) 5.1 (4.4, 5.9) 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 2.7 (2.3, 3.0)
China 2018 23.1 (20.1, 25.4) 17.6 (10.5, 24.7) 22.9 (20.6, 25.1) 10.2 (9.1,11.3) 0.3 (0.1, 0.4) 5.3 (4.7, 5.9)
Absolute change −9.2 −13.3 −12.6 5.1 0.2 4.0
% change −28.5 −43.0 −55.1 100 125 42.9
P-value < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Mexico 2009 4.6 (3.1, 6.1) 2.8 (0.6, 4.9) 4.1 (2.9, 5.4) 1.2 (0.8, 1.5) 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 0.7 (0.45, 0.87)
Mexico 2015 5.1 (3.4, 6.76) 2.7 (1.1, 4.2) 4.4 (3.2, 5.7) 1.3 (0.8, 1.7) 0.2 (0.01–0.3) 0.7 (0.51, 0.94)
Absolute change 0.5 −0.1 0.3 0.13 0 0.1
% change 9.7 −3.3 7.2 11.3 0 10.6
P-value 0.663 0.941 0.739 0.621 1.0 1.0
Philippines 2009 22.0 (19.7, 24.4) 8.2 (5.0, 11.4) 19.8 (17.7, 21.9) 10.6 (9.4, 11.8) 0.7 (0.4, 1.0) 5.6 (4.9, 6.3)
Philippines 2015 18.0 (15.8, 20.2) 8.4 (4.6, 12.1) 16.9 (14.9, 19.0) 7.3 (6.3, 8.2) 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) 3.8 (3.3, 4.4)
Absolute change −4.0 0.2 −2.9 −3.3 −0.3 −1.8
% change −18.2 2.0 −14.5 −31.2 − 41.9 − 31.4
P-value 0.015 0.707 0.052 < 0.001 0.14 < 0.001
Russia 2009 39.5 (36.9, 42.1) 18.4 (15.1, 21.8) 33.1 (30.9, 35.3) 23.8 (22.2, 25.4) 4.0 (3.2, 4.8) 13.0 (12.0, 13.9)
Russia 2016 37.6 (34.8, 40.5) 24.9 (20.9, 29.0) 34.3 (31.7, 36.9) 18.6 (17.0, 20.3) 3.6 (2.9, 4.3) 10.4 (9.5, 11.4)
Absolute change −1.9 6.5 1.2 −5.2 −0.4 −2.6
% change −4.7 35.3 3.7 −21.7 −10 − 19.7
P-value 0.334 0.015 0.489 < 0.001 0.46 0.001
Turkey 2008 21.0 (18.7, 23.4) 16.1 (11.9, 20.2) 20.0 (17.8, 22.1) 9.2 (8.1, 10.4) 1.9 (1.3, 2.4) 5.5 (4.8, 6.1)
Turkey 2016 34.4 (31.5, 37.3) 30.1 (25.6, 34.5) 33.1 (30.5, 30.8) 14.4 (13.0, 15.8) 5.3 (4.4, 6.2) 9.8 (8.9, 10.1)
Absolute change 13.4 14.0 13.2 5.6 3.4 4.3
% change 63.6 87.1 66.0 55.9 183.3 79
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Ukraine 2010 33.3 (30.8, 35.8) 21.2 (15.7, 26.7) 30.7 (28.5, 32.9) 16.7 (15.2, 18.1) 2.4 (1.7, 3.1) 8.9 (8.1, 9.6)
Ukraine 2017 39.5 (36.2, 42.8) 19.2 (13.5, 24.8) 35.2 (32.3, 38.1) 15.7 (14.1, 17.7) 1.7 (1.1, 2.3) 8.0 (7.3, 8.8)
Absolute change 6.2 −2.1 4.5 −1 −0.7 −0.8
% change 18.7 −9.8 14.7 −5.9 −30.1 −9.5
P-value 0.003 0.619 0.015 0.396 0.614 0.096
Uruguay 2009 17.6 (13.5, 21.7) 14.1 (9.6, 18.4) 16.1 (13.0, 19.1) 4.4 (3.2, 5.5) 2.3 (1.5, 3.1) 3.3 (2.6, 3.9)
Uruguay 2017 17.7 (13.6, 21.7) 15.9 (12.4, 19.4) 16.9 (13.9, 19.8) 3.7 (2.8, 4.5) 2.4 (1.8, 3.0) 3.0 (2.5, 3.5)
Absolute change 0.1 1.8 0.8 −0.7 0.1 − 0.3
% change 0.5 12.6 5.0 −15.8 3.9 −8.5
P-value 0.928 0.056 0.289 0.337 0.803 0.473
Vietnam 2010 20.8 (18.8, 22.9) 21.8 (14.0, 29.6) 20.9 (18.8, 22.9) 9.9 (8.8, 11.0) 0.3 (0.2, 0.5) 4.9 (4.4, 5.5)
Vietnam 2015 27.7 (25.3, 30.0) 28.3 (14.0, 42.6) 27.7 (25.4, 30.0) 12.5 (11.3, 13.8) 0.3 (0.1, 0.5) 6.2 (5.6, 6.9)
Absolute change 6.8 6.5 6.8 2.7 −0.1 1.3
% change 32.7 29.8 32.6 26.9 −3.1 25.8
P-value < 0.001 0.434 0 < 0.001 0.002 0.937 0.002