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Table 2 Prevalence estimates of daily smoking, non-daily smoking, and current smoking their 95% CIs in ten countries; absolute difference and percentage change between baseline and most recent rounds of GATS

From: Changes in adult smoking behaviours in ten global adult tobacco survey (GATS) countries during 2008–2018 - a test of ‘hardening’ hypothesis’

  Daily smoking Non-daily smoking Current smoking
men women both sexes men women Both sexes men women both sexes
India 2009 18.3 (17.3, 19.3) 2.4 (2.1,2.8) 10.7 (10.1, 11.2) 5.9 (5.4,6.4) 0.5 (0.4,0.6) 3.3 (10.1,11.2) 24.3 (23.3,25.3) 2.9 (2.5,3.4) 13.9 (13.4, 14.5)
India 2016 15.2 (14.5, 15.9) 1.7 (1.4,1.9) 8.6 (8.2,9.0) 3.8 (3.4,4.2) 0.3 (0.2,0.4) 2.1 (1.9, 2.3) 19.0 (18.1, 19.9) 1.9 (1.7, 2.2) 10.7 (10.2, 11.1)
Absolute change −3.1 − 0.8 −2.1 −2.1 − 0.2 −1.2 − 5.3 −1.0 −3.3
% change −17.1 −31.9 − 19.4 − 36.0 − 41.2 − 37.0 − 21.7 −33.6 − 23.7
P-value < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.005 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Bangladesh 2009 40.7 (38.5, 42.9) 1.3 (0.9, 1.8) 20.9 (19.8,22.0) 4.0 (3.2, 4.9) 0.2 (0.0, 0.3) 2.1 (1.7, 2.5) 44.7 (42.5, 46.9) 1.5 (1.0, 2.0) 23.0 (21.8, 24.1)
Bangladesh 2017 33.1 (31.2, 35.1) 0.7 (0.4, 0.9) 16.4 (15.5, 17.4) 3.1 (2.4, 3.8) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2) 1.5 (1.2, 1.9) 36.2 (34.2, 38.2) 0.8 (0.5, 0.1) 18.0 (17.0, 18.9)
Absolute change −7.6 −0.6 −4.5 − 0.9 − 0.1 −0.5 −8.5 − 0.7 −5.0
% change − 18.6 − 43.6 − 21.5 − 23.1 −38.9 −26.2 −19.0 − 49.0 − 21.8
P-value < 0.001 0.022 < 0.001 0.109 0.277 0.027 < 0.001 0.011 < 0.001
China 2010 45.3 (42.7, 48.0) 2.0 (1.5, 2.6) 24.1 (22.5, 25.6) 7.6 (6.5, 8.6) 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) 4.0 (3.5, 4.6) 52.9 (50.6, 55.2) 2.4 (1.8, 3.0) 28.1 (26.6, 29.6)
China 2018 44.4 (42.3, 46.4) 1.6 (1.2, 4.6) 23.2 (22.0, 24.5) 6.1 (5.4, 6.9) 0.5 (0.3, 0.6) 3.3 (2.9, 3.8) 50.5 (48.6, 52.4) 2.1 (1.6, 2.5) 26.6 (25.4, 27.8)
Absolute change −0.9 − 0.4 −0.8 −1.5 0.1 − 0.7 −2.4 − 0.3 − 1.5
% change −2.1 − 20.0 −3.6 − 19.3 21.9 − 20.1 −4.5 − 12.5 −5.8
P-value 0.599 0.661 0.376 0.023 0.346 0.054 0.115 0.433 0.126
Mexico 2009 11.8 (10.6,13.0) 3.7 (2.9, 4.5) 7.5 (6.8, 8.3) 13.0 (11.8,14.2) 4.1 (3.3, 4.9) 8.4 (7.5, 9.2) 24.8 (23.1, 26.5) 7.8 (6.6, 9.0) 15.9 (14.7, 17.1)
Mexico 2015 11.9 (10.6,13.2) 3.6 (2.9, 4.3) 7.6 (6.8, 8.3) 13.3 (12.0, 14.5) 4.6 (3.9, 5.3) 8.8 (8.0, 9.5) 25.2 (23.5, 26.8) 8.2 (7.2, 9.2) 16.3 (15.4, 17.3)
Absolute change 0.1 −0.0 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4
% change 0.8 −1.1 0.5 2.1 12.2 4.9 1.4 5.6 2.8
P-value 0.867 0.853 0.750 0.626 0.121 0.23 0.612 0.35 0.361
Philippines2009 38.2 (36.3, 40.1) 6.9 (5.9, 7.8) 22.5 (21.4, 23.6) 9.4 (8.2, 10.6) 2.1 (1.5, 2.6) 5.7 (5.0, 6.4) 47.6 (45.7, 49.6) 9.0 (7.9, 10.0) 28.2 (27.0, 29.5)
Philippines 2015 33.9 (32.1, 35.7) 3.6 (3.0, 4.2) 18.7 (17.7, 19.7) 6.4 (5.5, 7.3) 1.5 (1.1,1.9) 3.9 (3.4, 4.5) 40.0 (38.5, 42.1) 5.1 (4.4, 5.8) 22.7 (21.6, 23.7)
Absolute change −4.4 −3.2 −3.8 −3.0 −0.6 −1.8 −7.6 −3.8 −5.6
% change −11.4 −47.9 − 16.9 − 31.6 − 28.1 − 31.0 −16.0 − 43.0 − 19.8
P-value 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.084 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Russia 2009 55.0 (53.1, 56.8) 16.3 (14.4,18.1) 33.8 (32.5, 35.1) 5.2 (4.5, 6.0) 5.4 (4.6, 6.3) 5.3 (4.7, 6.0) 60.2 (58.4, 62.0) 21.7 (19.6,23.8) 39.1 (37.8, 40.5)
Russia 2016 43.9 (41.9, 45.8) 11.3 (10.2,12.4) 26.0 (24.9, 27.2) 5.6 (4.7, 6.6) 3.1 (2.5, 3.7) 4.3 (3.7, 4.8) 49.5 (47.5, 51.5) 14.4 (13.0, 15.8) 30.3 (28.9, 31.7)
Absolute change −11.1 −5.0 −7.7 0.4 −2.3 −1.1 − 10.7 − 7.2 −8.8
% change −20.2 −30.6 −22.9 7.2 −41.8 − 20.2 −17.8 −33.5 − 22.6
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 0.0007 0.356 < 0.001 0.021 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Turkey 2008 43.8 (41.8, 45.9) 11.6 (10.4, 12.7) 27.4 (26.2, 28.6) 4.1 (3.3, 4.8) 3.6 (2.9, 4.3) 3.8 (3.3, 4.3) 47.9 (45.8, 50.0) 15.2 (13.9, 16.4) 31.2 (29.9, 32.5)
Turkey 2016 41.8 (39.9, 43.7) 17.5 (15.8, 19.2) 29.6 (28.2, 31.0) 2.3 (1.8, 2.8) 1.7 (1.2, 2.1) 2.0 (1.6, 2.4) 44.1 (42.2, 43.51) 19.2 (17.4, 20.9) 31.6 (30.2, 33.6)
Absolute change −2.0 5.9 2.2 −1.8 −1.9 −1.8 −3.8 4.0 0.4
% change −4.6 50.8 8.0 −43.9 −52.9 −48.0 −7.9 26.3 1.1
P-value 0.161 0.001 0.019 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001 0.565
Ukraine2010 45.5 (43.5, 47.4) 8.9 (7.6,10.1) 25.5 (24.4, 26.6) 4.5 (3.6, 5.5) 2.4 (1.7, 3.0) 3.4 (2.8, 3.9) 50.0 (48.1, 51.9) 11.2 (9.9, 12.6) 28.9 (27.7, 30.0)
Ukraine2017 35.9 (33.9, 37.8) 7.0 (5.8, 8.1) 20.1 (18.9, 21.2) 3.8 (2.9, 4.7) 1.8 (1.2, 2.4) 2.7 (2.1, 3.3) 39.7 (37.8, 41.6) 8.8 (7.5, 10.1) 22.8 (21.5, 24.0)
Absolute change −9.6 −1.9 −5.4 −0.7 −0.6 −1.7 − 10.4 −2.4 −6.1
% change −21.2 − 21.5 − 21.2 −16.0 − 23.5 − 19.0 −20.7 − 21.8 − 21.0
P-value < 0.001 0.028 < 0.001 0.294 0.187 0.092 < 0.001 0.012 < 0.001
Uruguay 2009 24.8 (22.4, 27.2) 16.4 (14.8, 18.1) 20.4 (19.1, 21.8) 5.8 (4.6, 7.1) 3.3 (2.5, 4.1) 4.5 (3.8, 5.3) 30.7 (28.1, 33.3) 19.8 (8.0, 21.5) 24.9 (23.3, 26.6)
Uruguay 2017 21.5 (19.5, 23.5) 15.3 (13.7, 16.8) 18.3 (17.6, 19.5) 4.0 (3.0, 5.0) 2.7 (2.0, 3.4) 3.3 (2.8, 3.9) 25.6 (23.4, 27.7) 18.0 (16.3, 19.7) 21.6 (20.3, 22.9)
Absolute change −3.3 −1.1 −2.2 −1.8 −0.6 − 1.2 −5.1 − 1.8 −3.3
% change − 13.3 −6.9 − 10.6 − 31.3 − 18.8 − 0.3 −16.7 −8.9 − 13.4
P-value 0.038 0.341 0.013 0.028 0.269 0.011 0.003 0.612 0.002
Vietnam 2010 38.7 (36.9, 40.6) 1.2 (0.7, 1.7) 19.4 (18.4, 20.5) 8.7 (7.5, 9.8) 0.2 (0.1,0.4) 4.3 (3.8, 4.9) 47.4 (45.4, 49.4) 1.4 (0.9, 2.0) 23.8 (22.6,24.9)
Vietnam 2015 38.7 (36.6, 40.9) 0.9 (0.5, 1.2) 19.2 (18.0, 20.4) 6.6 (5.6, 7.6) 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 3.3 (2.8,3.8) 45.3 (43.1, 47.5) 1.0 (0.7, 1.5) 22.5 (21.2, 23.8)
Absolute change 0.0 −0.3 −0.2 −2.1 0 −1.0 −2.1 − 0.4 −1.2
% change 0.1 −28.1 −1.2 −0.24 0.0 −23.6 −4.4 −29.9 −5.3
P-value 1.0 0.335 0.806 0.007 0.853 0.009 0.166 0.248 0.142