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Table 2 Agricultural work-related characteristics of CPF exposed farmers grouped according to the cumulative exposure level

From: Cumulative exposure characteristics of vegetable farmers exposed to Chlorpyrifos in Central Java – Indonesia; a cross-sectional study

Variable Cumulative Exposure Level p-value
High (n = 71) Low (n = 81)
Arable land area (acres)a 0.25 (0.03–0.70) 0.15 (0.01–0.50) 0.001
Number of arable landsa 4 (1–13) 3 (1–9) 0.026
Daily work duration (hours)a 7 (3–10) 6 (3–10) 0.003
Spraying in the morning time (n %) 48 (67.6) 44 (54.3) 0.095cs
Duration of spraying pesticide (hours/day)a 0.57 (0.14–2.00) 0.30 (0.04–2.25) <  0.001
Volume of the mixture applied (litre/day)a 27.2 (7.0–81.6) 14.6 (2.3–85.0) <  0.001
Used more than 3 pesticides in mixture (n %) 15 (21.1) 30 (37.0) 0.032cs
Using a manually pressurised sprayer (n %) 13 (18.3) 23 (28.4) 0.145cs
  1. aMedian (minimum-maximum) with p-value by Mann-Whitney test; cs Chi-square