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Table 3 Summary of health outcomes

From: Effectiveness of digital interventions to improve household and community infection prevention and control behaviours and to reduce incidence of respiratory and/or gastro-intestinal infections: a rapid systematic review

Study Outcome Measure Outcome in Control Group Outcome in Intervention Group Test statistics and statistical significance (where available)
Hu 2018 [17] Incidence of HFMD 13.3% (4/30) 0% (0/30) n/a
Hu 2019 [18] Duration of rash in days, M (SD) 7.43 (1.9) 3.65 (0.8) p < 0.05
Time to recovery in days, M (SD) 13.04 (2.6) 6.66 (1.5) p < 0.05
Little 2015 [9] Number reporting one or more episodes of RTI at 16 weeks 59% (5135/ 8667) 51% (4242/ 8241) Multivariate risk ratio 0·86;
95% CI 0·83–0·89; p < 0·0001
Number reporting one or more episodes of gastrointestinal infections at 16 weeks 25% (1821/ 7292) 21% (1376/ 6410) Multivariate risk ratio 0.82; 95% CI 0.76–0.88; p < 0.0001
Number of respiratory infections at 4 months, M (SD) 1.09 (1.36) 0.84 (1.13) Multivariate incident rate ratio 0.75; 95% CI 0.72–0.79; p < 0.0001
Number of days of moderate or bad symptoms, M (SD) 2.60 (4.44) 2.08 (4.00) Multivariate incident rate ratio 0.92; 95% CI 0.87–0.98; p < 0.0001
Antibiotic use in primary care within 4 months 6% (617/9579) 6% (535/9540) Multivariate risk ratio 0.83; 95% CI 0.74–0.94; p = 0.002
Antibiotic use in primary care within 12 months 11% (1008/9579) 9% (891/9540) Multivariate risk ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.77–0.93; p < 0.001
Consultation in primary care or hospitalisation with respiratory infection within 4 months 11% (1021/9579) 10% (951/9540) Multivariate risk ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.82–0.98; p = 0.014
Consultation in primary care or hospitalisation with respiratory infection within 12 months 17% (1653/9579) 16% (1527/9540) Multivariate risk ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.84–0.96; p = 0.001
Number of respiratory infections in household members 49% (4193/ 8551) 44% (3545/ 8075) Multivariate risk ratio 0.88; 95% CI 0.85–0.92; p < 0.0001
Number of respiratory infections in the household at 4 months, M (SD) 1.17 (2.07) 0.93 (1.48) Multivariate incident rate ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.74–0.83; p < 0.0001