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Table 3 Multivariable regression analysis of inequity in contact coverage of routine MNH visits in Nepal, 2016 (N = 1978)

From: Intersectional (in) equities in contact coverage of maternal and newborn health services in Nepal: insights from a nationwide cross-sectional household survey

Determinants four ANC visits Institutional delivery PNC visit
  Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Intersectionality
 Marginalisation status of women
  Poor and illiterate and disadvantaged ethnicity 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Poor and illiterate and advantaged ethnicity 1.31 (0.71, 2.44) 0.86 (0.45,1.62) 0.83 (0.43, 1.61) 0.65 (0.32, 1.31) 1.35 (0.71, 2.56) 1.41 (0.71, 2.80)
  Poor and literate and disadvantaged ethnicity 2.28 (1.44, 3.59) *** 1.38 (0.84, 2.25) 1.46 (0.96, 2.24) 0.70 (0.43,1.15) 1.77 (1.12, 2.79) * 0.96 (0.58, 1.59)
  Rich and illiterate and disadvantaged ethnicity 1.43 (0.91, 2.24) 1.54 (0.95, 2.49) 1.72 (1.04, 2.86) * 1.98 (1.10, 3.55) * 1.84 (1.19, 2.84) ** 1.96 (1.20, 3.20) **
  Poor and literate and advantaged ethnicity 4.15 (2.50, 6.90) *** 1.86 (1.05, 3.26) * 2.43 (1.46, 4.05) *** 1.12 (0.62, 2.03) 2.94 (1.81, 4.79) *** 1.75 (1.03, 2.96) *
  Rich and literate and disadvantaged ethnicity 3.39 (2.17, 5.30) *** 2.37 (1.42,3.97) ** 5.16 (3.37, 7.91) *** 3.20 (1.97, 5.20) *** 3.45 (2.23, 5.35) *** 2.17 (1.35, 3.51) **
  Rich and illiterate and advantaged ethnicity 1.63 (0.30, 8.83) 1.01 (0.21,4.93) 13.28 (2.28, 77.28) ** 6.19 (1.08, 35.43) * 7.43 (1.85, 29.90) ** 4.35 (1.35, 14.01) *
  Rich and literate and advantaged ethnicity 14.34 (7.51, 27.40) *** 5.51 (2.85,10.64) *** 20.19 (10.45, 39.03) *** 7.32 (3.66,14.63) *** 9.63 (5.88, 15.75) *** 4.18 (2.40, 7.28) ***
Intermediary
 Language
  Nepali 1.00 1.00 1.00   1.00  
  Maithili 0.51 (0.35, 0.75) *** 0.75 (0.40, 1.41) 0.55 (0.37, 0.82) **   0.50 (0.35, 0.71) ***  
  Bhojpuri 0.21 (0.14, 0.31) *** 0.26 (0.13, 0.52) *** 0.48 (0.31,0.74) ***   0.38 (0.25, 0.55) ***  
  Others (e.g., Newari or Tharu) 0.60 (0.43,0.85) ** 0.62 (0.41, 0.92) * 0.81 (0.58, 1.15)   0.87 (0.66, 1.16)  
 Provinces
  One 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Two 0.37 (0.24, 0.57) *** 0.69 (0.41,1.16) 0.62 (0.40,0.97) * 0.77 (0.44, 1.33) 0.52 (0.35, 0.77) ** 0.87 (0.54,1.40)
  Three 0.84 (0.46, 1.55) 0.78 (0.45, 1.35) 1.36 (0.74, 2.50) 1.11 (0.62, 1.98) 1.41 (0.87, 2.26) 1.19 (0.77,1.85)
  Four 0.82 (0.50, 1.34) 0.65 (0.38, 1.09) 1.43 (0.74, 2.78) 1.34 (0.69, 2.60) 1.47 (0.84, 2.55) 1.38 (0.82, 2.32)
  Five 0.80 (0.46, 1.37) 1.05 (0.62, 1.78) 0.99 (0.61, 1.60) 0.91 (0.56,1.48) 0.88 (0.58, 1.35) 0.87 (0.58, 1.29)
  Six 0.32 (0.21, 0.51) *** 0.34 (0.21, 0.56) *** 0.40 (0.24, 0.68) *** 0.73 (0.40, 1.33) 0.48 (0.31, 0.74) *** 0.62 (0.39, 0.99) *
  Seven 1.41 (0.90, 2.20) 1.83 (1.05, 3.21) * 1.77 (0.96, 3.26) 2.79 (1.38, 5.65) ** 0.91 (0.57, 1.43) 0.86 (0.55, 1.37)
Residence
  Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Rural 0.61 (0.44, 0.85) ** 0.91 (0.67–1.23) 0.41 (0.30, 0.56) *** 0.53 (0.39, 0.72) *** 0.54 (0.42, 0.70) *** 0.74 (0.58, 0.95) *