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Table 2 Contact coverage of routine MNH visits in Nepal, NDHS 2016

From: Intersectional (in) equities in contact coverage of maternal and newborn health services in Nepal: insights from a nationwide cross-sectional household survey

Determinants Frequency 4ANC visits (N = 1978) Institutional delivery (N = 1978) PNC visit (N = 1978)
   Yes (%) p Yes (%) p Yes (%) p
Structural
 Wealth rank
  Poor (40%) 832 64.9 < 0.001 48.7 < 0.001 39.6 < 0.001
  Rich (60%) 1146 75.2   75.4   58.4  
 Ethnicity
  Disadvantaged 1374 65.7 < 0.001 59.6 < 0.001 44.8 < 0.001
  Advantaged 604 82.4   74.7   63.6  
 Education
  Illiterate 570 53.5 < 0.001 47.3 < 0.001 36.3 < 0.001
  Literate 1408 77.9   71.0   56.3  
Intermediary
 Language
  Nepali 839 80.2 < 0.001 70.2   57.7 < 0.001
  Maithili 360 67.6   56.5   40.7  
  Bhojpuri 267 45.6   53.0   33.9  
  Others (e.g., Newari or Tharu) 512 70.9   65.7   54.3  
 Provinces
  One 338 78.8 < 0.001 65.9 < 0.001 54.5 < 0.001
  Two 513 58.0   54.7   38.3  
  Three 312 75.8   72.4   62.8  
  Four 164 75.3   73.5   63.8  
  Five 364 74.7   65.6   51.4  
  Six 121 54.6   43.7   36.4  
  Seven 166 84.0   77.4   52.1  
 Residence
  Urban 1062 75.5 0.003 73.6 < 0.001 57.5 < 0.001
  Rural 916 65.4   53.3   42.4  
 Region
  Mountain 131 71.7 0.015 45.0 0.007 45.6 < 0.001
  Hill 760 76.2   67.7   57.1  
  Terai 1087 67.0   64.1   46.5  
  National level 1978 71.0   64.0   51.5  
  1. Note: p-values obtained from Fisher exact test. ANC: antenatal care. PNC: postnatal care