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Table 3 Contact characteristics associated with differences between contact rates within age groups, South Africa, 2018

From: A cross-sectional study measuring contact patterns using diaries in an urban and a rural community in South Africa, 2018

  Risk ratio (95% confidence interval)
All ages < 7 years 7–13 years 14–18 years 19–64 years ≥65 years
Type of contact
Physical 1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.0) 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 0.9 (0.9 to 1.0) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)
Non-physical Reference
Age of contact
< 7 years 6.1 (5.5 to 6.8) 8.2 (5.8 to 11.6) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.8) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.3) 0.3 (0.1 to 0.7)
7–13 years 8.5 (7.7 to 9.5) 2.9 (2.0 to 4.1) 3.5 (2.7 to 4.4) 0.4 (0.2 to 0.6) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2) 0.4 (0.2 to 1.0)
14–18 years 6.7 (6.0 to 7.5) 0.6 (0.4 to 0.8) 1.8 (1.4 to 2.4) 6.3 (4.4 to 9.1) 0.2 (0.2 to 0.3) 0.2 (0.1 to 0.5)
19–64 years 11.9 (10.7 to 13.2) 1.2 (0.8 to 1.7) 0.9 (0.7 to 1.1) 1.9 (1.3 to 2.8) 0.9 (0.8 to 1.0) 1.3 (0.6 to 2.9)
≥65 years Reference
Gender of contact
Male Reference
Female 1.2 (1.1 to 1.2) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 0.8 (0.8 to 0.9) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.1) 1.2 (1.1 to 1.3) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)
Not reported 0.1 (0.1 to 0.1) 1.4 (1.2 to 1.7) 0.4 (0.3 to 0.5) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.5) 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) NEO
Contact is household member
No 3.9 (3.7 to 4.0) 0.9 (0.8 to 1.0) 1.3 (1.2 to 1.4) 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) 0.8 (0.8 to 0.9) 0.4 (0.3 to 0.5)
Yes Reference
Total time spent with contact during the day
<  5 m Reference
5-15 m 2.5 (2.2 to 2.9) 1.3 (0.8 to 2.1) 1.4 (1.0 to 2.1) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) 0.6 (0.2 to 1.8)
15 m-1 h 8.7 (7.7 to 9.9) 2.0 (1.3 to 3.1) 1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.1) 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 0.8 (0.3 to 2.2)
1-4hts 16.8 (14.8 to 19.1) 2.9 (1.9 to 4.5) 2.5 (1.8 to 3.5) 0.6 (0.5 to 0.8) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.6) 0.7 (0.3 to 1.7)
> 4 h 22.1 (19.5 to 25.0) 2.9 (1.9 to 4.4) 2.3 (1.6 to 3.2) 1.0 (0.7 to 1.3) 0.4 (0.4 to 0.5) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.3)
Frequency of contact
Daily/almost daily 34.6 (30.8 to 38.8) 16.1 (6.7 to 38.7) 8.9 (4.9 to 16.1) 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.3) 0.8 (0.3 to 2.7)
Once or twice a week 5.7 (5.1 to 6.5) 5.5 (2.2 to 13.3) 4.4 (2.4 to 8.1) 1.3 (0.9 to 1.9) 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) 2.4 (0.8 to 7.9)
Once or twice a month Reference
<  1 a month 0.7 (0.6 to 0.9) 0.8 (0.2 to 3.5) 0.4 (0.1 to 1.3) No observations 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) 0.5 (0.0 to 4.4)
Never met before 1.8 (1.6 to 2.1) 3.9 (1.5 to 10.0) 4.5 (2.4 to 8.4) 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8) 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 5.8 (1.8 to 18.9)
Location of contact
Home 3.6 (3.3 to 3.9) 1.2 (1.0 to 1.5) 2.1 (1.6 to 2.8) 1.1 (0.8 to 1.5) 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)
School 8.2 (7.7 to 8.8) 1.5 (1.2 to 1.8) 3.7 (2.8 to 4.9) 2.6 (2.0 to 3.5) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.1) No observations
Work 0.8 (0.7 to 0.8) No observations 0.0 (0.0 to 0.1) 0.0 (0.0 to 0.1) 2.0 (1.7 to 2.3) 0.0 (0.0 to 0.1)
Transport Reference
Other 5.1 (4.7 to 5.5) 0.8 (0.6 to 1.0) 2.2 (1.7 to 2.9) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.7) 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) 0.1 (0.1 to 0.1)
  1. Cells indicate risk ratio with 95% confidence interval in parenthesis. Reference group chosen as category with least number of contacts when combining all ages, except where lowest number were in a category where some age groups have zero contacts, then second lowest used (frequency)