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Table 1 Characteristics of children with anthropometry at 0, 24, and 60 months of age in the MAL-ED study, including height-for-age z-score (HAZ), height-for-age difference (HAD), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and weight-for-age difference (WAD). Stunting is defined as HAZ < -2, underweight is defined as WAZ < -2

From: Influences on catch-up growth using relative versus absolute metrics: evidence from the MAL-ED cohort study

N 942
No. girls (%) 474 (50.3)
Mean SES scorea (SD) 0.6 (0.2)
Mean Lactulose:Mannitol z-scoreb (SD) 0.4 (0.6)
Maternal height, cm (SD) 152.2 (6.5)
Mean energy intakec, kcal/d (SD) 838.0 (360.8)
Mean protein intakec, g/d (SD) 23.3 (10.5)
Mean transferrin receptord, mg/L (SD) 6.0 (3.1)
# stunted at 0 mo (%) 130 (13.8)
# stunted at 24 mo (%) 426 (45.2)
# stunted at 60 mo (%) 256 (27.2)
Mean HAZ at 0 mo (SD) -0.9 (1.0)
Mean HAZ at 24 mo (SD) -1.9 (1.0)
Mean HAZ at 60 mo (SD) -1.4 (0.9)
Change HAZ 24 to 60 mo (SD) 0.5 (0.6)
Change HAD 24 to 60 mo (cm) -1.0 (2.5)
# underweight at 0 mo (%) 130 (13.8)
# underweight at 24 mo (%) 202 (21.4)
# underweight at 60 mo (%) 184 (19.5)
Mean WAZ at 0 mo (SD) -0.8 (1.1)
Mean WAZ at 24 mo (SD) -1.2 (1.0)
Mean WAZ at 60 mo (SD) -1.2 (1.0)
Change WAZ 24 to 60 mo (SD) 0.0 (0.7)
Change WAD 24 to 60 mo (kg) -1.1 (1.6)
  1. aSocioeconomic score is the mean of values at 30 and 36 months. The score was generated for the MAL-ED study and based on Water and sanitation, Assets, Maternal education, and Income (WAMI) [26]
  2. bLactulose:Mannitol tests were conducted 3, 6, 9 and 15 months and transformed into z-scores, and the mean of 1–4 z-scores was calculated per child
  3. cRepresents the mean intake per child of non-breast milk foods assessed monthly from 9 to 24 months (range 11–17 assessments per child)
  4. dMean of 1–3 measures per child assessed at 7, 15, and 24 months