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Table 5 Bivariate associations between reporting hate crime to police and demographic characteristics, trans women surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area, 2016–2018 (N = 286)

From: Experiences and factors associated with transphobic hate crimes among transgender women in the San Francisco Bay Area: comparisons across race

Variable Reported transphobic hate crime to police n (%) OR (95% CI) P-value
No (n = 146) Yes (140)
Age
 18–24 14 (9.6) 13 (9.3) REF  
 25–24 43 (29.5) 28 (20.0) 0.70 (0.29, 1.71) 0.436
 35–44 25 (17.1) 46 (32.9) 1.98 (0.81, 4.87) 0.136
 45–54 40 (27.4) 32 (22.9) 0.86 (0.36, 2.09) 0.742
 55+ 24 (16.4) 21 (15.0) 0.94 (0.36, 2.45) 0.903
Gender
 Female 62 (45.3) 59 (43.1) REF  
 Transgender female/transwoman 67 (48.9) 76 (55.5) 1.19 (0.73, 1.94) 0.478
 Genderqueer/Genderfluid 6 (4.4) 2 (1.4) 0.35 (0.07, 1.80) 0.210
 Androgynous/Ambigender 2 (1.5) 0 (0.0)  
Sexual identity
 Gay/homosexual 14 (14.4) 19 (16.8) REF  
 Bisexual 29 (29.9) 16 (14.2) 0.41 (0.16, 1.02) 0.056
 Heterosexual 54 (55.7) 78 (69.0) 1.06 (0.49, 2.30) 0.874
Race
 White 42 (28.8) 34 (24.3) REF  
 Black/African American 24 (16.4) 25 (17.8) 1.29 (0.63, 2.64) 0.492
 Latina 43 (29.5) 54 (38.6) 1.55 (0.85, 2.84) 0.154
 Other 37 (25.3) 27 (19.3) 0.90 (0.46, 1.76) 0.762
Education
 Middle school or less 7 (4.8) 15 (10.7) REF  
 Some or completed secondary 69 (47.3) 57 (40.7) 0.38 (0.15, 1.01) 0.052
 Some or completed college/Technical 60 (41.1) 65 (46.4) 0.51 (0.19, 1.32) 0.165
 Postgraduate 10 (6.8) 3 (2.2) 0.14 (0.03, 0.67) 0.014
Ever been undocumented
 No 132 (90.4) 110 (78.6) REF  
 Yes 14 (9.6) 30 (21.4) 2.57 (1.29, 5.09) 0.007
Experienced homelessness as a child
 No 95 (65.1) 79 (56.4) REF  
 Yes 51 (34.9) 61 (43.6) 1.44 (0.89, 2.32) 0.135
Experienced homelessness as an adult
 No 23 (15.8) 23 (16.4) REF  
 Yes 123 (84.2) 117 (83.6) 0.95 (0.51, 1.79) 0.877
Current Housing
 Own 1 (0.7) 2 (1.4) REF  
 Renting 59 (40.4) 54 (38.6) 0.46 (0.04, 5.19) 0.528
 Single room occupancy 28 (19.2) 32 (22.9) 0.57 (0.05, 6.65) 0.655
 Homeless/temporary/unstable housing 40 (27.4) 41 (29.3) 0.51 (0.04, 5.88) 0.591
 Other 18 (12.3) 11 (7.8) 0.31 (0.02, 3.78) 0.355
Ever did sex work
 No 29 (20.0) 29 (20.7) REF  
 Yes 116 (80.0) 111 (79.3) 0.96 (0.54, 1.70) 0.881
Ever experienced discrimination by police/in court
 Based on gender identity/presentation 71 (68.3) 48 (45.7) REF  
 Based on race, ethnicity, or color 1 (0.9) 4 (3.8) 5.92 (0.64, 54.57) 0.117
 Based on both gender and race/ethnicity 32 (30.8) 53 (50.5) 2.45 (1.38, 4.34) 0.002
Feel gender identity passes
 Not at all 17 (11.8) 6 (4.4) REF  
 A little bit 25 (17.4) 24 (17.4) 2.72 (0.92, 8.06) 0.071
 Somewhat 58 (40.3) 51 (36.9) 2.49 (0.91, 6.80) 0.075
 A lot 44 (30.5) 57 (41.3) 3.67 (1.34, 10.08) 0.012
Feel gender identity questioned
 Not at all 6 (4.2) 14 (10.2) REF  
 A little bit 38 (26.6) 46 (33.3) 0.52 (0.18, 1.48) 0.220
 Somewhat 47 (32.9) 37 (26.8) 0.34 (0.12, 0.96) 0.042
 A lot 52 (36.3) 41 (29.7) 0.34 (0.12, 0.96) 0.041
Ever been incarcerated
 No 45 (30.8) 35 (25.0) REF  
 Yes 101 (69.2) 105 (75.0) 1.34 (0.80, 2.25) 0.274