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Table 2 Experiences of transphobic hate crimes and criminal justice involvement, stratified by race/ethnicity, trans women surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area, 2016–2018 (N = 629)

From: Experiences and factors associated with transphobic hate crimes among transgender women in the San Francisco Bay Area: comparisons across race

Variable Total Racial Group n (%)  
White (n = 183) Black/AA (n = 107) Latina (n = 205) Other (n = 136) χ2 p-value
Ever experienced transphobic hate crime 288 (45.8) 78 (42.6) 49 (45.8) 97 (47.3) 64 (47.8) 1.1418 0.767
Hate crimes prevalence overall
 Robbery 10 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (3.8) 5 (2.5) 1 (0.8) 29.7768 0.003
 Physical Assault 111 (17.9) 34 (18.9) 15 (14.2) 31 (15.2) 31 (23.9)   
 Sexual Assault 54 (8.7) 20 (11.1) 6 (5.7) 13 (6.4) 15 (11.5)   
 Battery with weapon 104 (16.8) 21 (11.7) 23 (21.7) 47 (23.0) 13 (10.0)   
 Did not experience hate crime 341 (55.0) 105 (58.3) 58 (54.7) 108 (52.9) 70 (53.9)   
Type of hate crime among those who experienced a hate crime (n = 279)       28.5007 0.001
 Robbery 10 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (8.3) 5 (5.2) 1 (1.7)   
 Physical Assault 111 (39.8) 34 (45.3) 15 (31.3) 31 (32.3) 31 (51.6)   
 Sexual Assault 54 (19.3) 20 (26.7) 6 (12.5) 13 (13.5) 15 (25.0)   
 Battery with weapon 104 (37.3) 21 (28.0) 23 (47.9) 47 (49.0) 13 (21.7)   
Mean number of hate crime types experienced (Std. Dev) 1.9 (1.1) 1.8 (1.0) 2.0 (1.1) 2.1 (1.1) 1.5 (0.9) NA NA
Reported hate crime to police (n = 286)       7.3416 0.290
 No, for none 146 (51.1) 42 (55.3) 24 (49.0) 43 (44.3) 37 (57.8)   
 Yes, for some 46 (16.1) 15 (19.7) 5 (10.2) 17 (17.5) 9 (14.1)   
 Yes, for all 94 (32.8) 19 (25.0) 20 (40.8) 37 (38.2) 18 (28.1)   
Ever been incarcerated       62.2038 < 0.001
 No 230 (36.5) 102 (55.7) 12 (11.2) 77 (37.6) 39 (28.9)   
 Yes 400 (63.5) 81 (44.3) 95 (88.8) 128 (62.4) 96 (71.1)   
Ever experienced discrimination by police/in court (n = 324)       59.2099 < 0.001
 Based on gender identity/presentation 188 (58.0) 75 (91.5) 21 (34.4) 54 (50.0) 38 (52.1)   
 Based on race, ethnicity, or color 10 (3.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.6) 6 (5.6) 3 (4.1)   
 Based on both gender and race/ethnicity 126 (38.9) 7 (8.5) 39 (64.0) 48 (44.4) 32 (43.8)