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Table 3 Prevalence and characteristics of alcohol consumption per site and per gender

From: Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of tobacco and alcohol use in four sub-Saharan African countries: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults

  Agincourt Digkale Nairobi Nanoro Navrongo Soweto All Men All Women  
Men (573) Women (892) p-value Men (355) Women (810) p-value Men (886) Women (1056) p-value Men (1045) Women (1039) p-value Men (923) Women (1091) p-value Men (1025) Women (1005) p-value N = 4807 N = 5893 p-value
Alcohol use    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001       < 0.001
Never Consumed 187 (32.64%) 731 (81.95%)   55 (15.45%) 561 (69.43%)   257 (29.01%) 758 (71.78%)   273 (26.22%) 277 (26.74%)   71 (7.71%) 231 (21.21%)   299 (29.17%)   1142 (23.79%) 2558 (52.41%)  
Current non-problematic 218 (38.08%) 52 (05.83%)   77 (21.63%) 45 (05.57%)   174 (19.64%) 32 (03.03%)   544 (52.26%) 521 (50.19%)   252 (27.36%) 426 (39.12%)   726 (70.83%)   1991 (41.97%) 1075 (22.02%)  
Current problematic 18 (03.14%) 2 (0.22%)   142 (39.89%) 57 (07.05%)   126 (14.22%) 30 (02.84%)   160 (15.37%) 100 (09.65%)   461 (50.05%) 167 (15.34%)    906 (18.87%) 356 (07.29%)  
Former consumer 150 (26.18%) 107 (12.00%)   82 (23.03%) 145 (17.95%)   329 (37.13%) 236 (22.35%)   64 (06.15%) 139 (13.42%)   137 (14.88%) 265 (24.33%)    762 (15.87%) 892 (18.27%)  
Problems with drinking
Felt should cut down? 17 (02.97%) 2 (0.22%) < 0.001 140 (39.33%) 65 (08.01%) < 0.001 137 (15.46%) 31 (02.94%) < 0.001 208 (19.90%) 126 (12.13%) < 0.001 543 (58.83%) 282 (25.85%) < 0.001 NA NA   1045 (21.73%) 506 (08.58%) < 0.001
People have criticized 8 (01.40%) 1 (0.11%) 0.002 90 (25.28%) 33 (04.07%) < 0.001 95 (10.72%) 27 (02.56%) < 0.001 136 (13.01%) 94 (09.05%) 0.010 347 (37.59%) 117 (10.72%) < 0.001 NA NA   676 (14.06%) 272 (04.62%) < 0.001
Guilty? 10 (01.75%) 1 (0.11%) < 0.001 121 (33.99%) 54 (06.66%) < 0.001 127 (14.33%) 27 (02.56%) < 0.001 111 (10.62%) 51 (04.91%) < 0.001 441 (47.78%) 170 (15.58%) < 0.001 NA NA   810 (16.85%) 303 (05.14%) < 0.001
Alcohol first in the morning? 30 (05.24%) 3 (0.34%) < 0.001 121 (33.99%) 20 (02.47%) < 0.001 51 (05.76%) 10 (0.95%) < 0.001 87 (08.33%) 63 (06.06%) 0.136 229 (24.81%) 49 (04.49%) < 0.001 NA NA   518 (10.77%) 145 (02.46%) < 0.001
> 6 alcoholic drinks 98 (17.10) 11 (01.23%) < 0.001 136 (38.20%) 49 (06.04%) < 0.001 43 (04.85%) 9 (0.85%) < 0.001 166 (15.89%) 74 (07.12%) < 0.001 18 (01.95%) 5 (0.46%) 0.007 NA NA   461 (09.59%) 148 (02.51%) < 0.001
Type of consumption
Beer 139 (24.26%) 24 (02.69%) < 0.001 217 (60.96%) 98 (12.08%) < 0.001 334 (37.70%) 190 (17.99%) < 0.001 154 (14.74%) 13 (01.25%) < 0.001 250 (27.09%) 158 (14.48%) < 0.001 593 (57.85%) NA   1687 (35.09%) 483 (08.19%) < 0.001
Home brew 85 (14.83%) 22 (02.47%) < 0.001 73 (20.51%) 34 (04.19%) < 0.001 361 (40.74%) 120 (11.36%) < 0.001 223 (21.34%) 393 (37.82%) < 0.001 675 (73.13%) 772 (70.76%) < 0.001 25 (02.44%) NA   1442 (29.99%) 1341 (22.75%) < 0.001
Spirits 7 (01.22%) 1 (0.11%) < 0.001 3 (0.85%) 2 (0.25%) < 0.001 25 (02.82%) 7 (0.66%) < 0.001 60 (05.74%) 7 (0.67%) < 0.001 629 (68.15%) 391 (35.84%) < 0.001 59 (05.76%) NA   783 (16.29%) 408 (06.92%) < 0.001
Wine 3 (0.52%) 3 (0.34%) < 0.001 2 (0.56%) 25 (03.08%) < 0.001 5 (0.56%) 4 (0.38%) < 0.001 5 (0.48%) 7 (0.67%) 0.803 33 (03.58%) 11 (01.01%) < 0.001 41 (04.00%) NA   89 (01.85%) 50 (0.85%) < 0.001
Other 1 (0.17%) 4 (0.45%) 0.380 11 (03.10%) 87 (10.74%) < 0.001 1 (0.11%) 0 (0.00%) 0.275 411 (39.33%) 345 (33.21%) 0.007 4 (0.43%) 3 (0.27%) < 0.001 54 (05.27%) NA   482 (10.02%) 439 (07.45%) < 0.001
Frequency of consumption    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001       < 0.001
Current Non-consumers 337 (58.81%) 838 (93.95%)   137 (38.59%) 710 (87.65%)   588 (66.37%) 994 (94.13%)   345 (33.01%) 423 (40.71%)   211 (22.86%) 506 (46.38%)   NA NA   2643 (54.98%) 4476 (75.95%)  
Daily 37 (06.46%) 4 (0.45%)   12 (03.38%) 0 (0.00%)   78 (08.80%) 12 (01.14%)   284 (27.18%) 107 (10.30%)   125 (13.54%) 60 (05.50%)   NA NA   536 (11.15%) 183 (03.11%)  
5–6 days per week 35 (06.11%) 3 (0.34%)   7 (01.97%) 0 (0.00%)   6 (0.68%) 1 (0.09%)   97 (09.28%) 44 (04.23%)   263 (28.39%) 128 (11.73%)   NA NA   407 (08.47%) 176 (02.99%)  
1–4 days per week 66 (11.52%) 7 (0.78%)   137 (38.59%) 35 (04.32%)   129 (14.56%) 28 (02.65%)   268 (25.65%) 354 (34.07%)   272 (29.47%) 312 (28.60%)   NA NA   872 (18.14%) 736 (12.49%)  
1–3 days per month 60 (10.47%) 18 (02.02%)   61 (17.18%) 59 (07.28%)   58 (06.55%) 12 (01.14%)   43 (04.11%) 93 (08.95%)   43 (04.66%) 65 (05.96%)   NA NA   265 (05.51%) 247 (04.19%)  
Less than once per month 38 (06.63%) 22 (02.47%)   1 (0.28%) 6 (0.74%)   27 (03.05%) 9 (0.85%)   8 (0.77%) 18 (01.73%)   10 (01.08%) 20 (01.83%)   NA NA   84 (01.75%) 75 (01.27%)  
  1. Categorical variables are presented as number and percentage. Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test (when Chi-squared test conditions were not fulfilled) were used to assess differences
  2. NA Variables not available at site