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Table 2 Prevalence and characteristics of tobacco consumption per site and per gender

From: Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of tobacco and alcohol use in four sub-Saharan African countries: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults

  Agincourt Digkale Nairobi Nanoro Navrongo Soweto All men All women  
Men (573) Women (892) p-value Men (355) Women (810) p-value Men (886) Women (1056) p-value Men (1045) Women (1039) p-value Men (923) Women (1091) p-value Men (1025) Women (1005) p-value N = 4807 N = 5893 p-value
Smoking status    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Never Smoked 291 (50.96%) 882 (98.88%)   54 (15.21%) 756 (93.33%)   418 (47.33%) 975 (92.33%)   779 (74.69%) 1033 (99.81%)   332 (35.97%) 1052 (96.6%)   311 (30.40%) 897 (89.97%)   2185 (45.52%) 5595 (95.17%)  
 Current smoker 155 (27.15%) 3 (0.34%)   224 (63.38%) 25 (03.09%)   208 (23.50%) 27 (02.56%)   142 (13.61%) 0 (0.00%)   388 (42.04%) 21 (01.93%)   540 (52.79%) 49 (4.91%)   1658 (34.54%) 125 (02.13%)  
 Former smoke 125 (21.89%) 7 (0.78%)   76 (21.41%) 29 (03.58%)   259 (29.27%) 54 (05.11%)   122 (11.70%) 2 (0.19%)   203 (21.99%) 16 (01.47%)   172 (16.81%) 51 (5.12%)   957 (19.94%) 159 (02.70%)  
Age started smoking 20 (17–27) 23 (20–30) 0.4103 19 (16–23) 19 (16–22) 0.7572 19 (16–22) 20 (17–23) 0.1457 20 (18–25) 24.5 (21–28) 0.3333 20 (20–25) 20 (18–30) 0.8061 NA NA   20 (17–25) 20 (17–24) 0.3125
Type of smoked tobacco Use
 Cigarettes (Yes) NA NA 118 (33.15%) 14 (01.73%) < 0.001 208 (23.48%) 25 (02.37%) < 0.001 140 (13.40%) 0 (0.00%) < 0.001 262 (28.39%) 12 (01.10%) < 0.001 535 (52.20%) 49 (04.87%) < 0.001 1263 (26.27%) 100 (01.70%) < 0.001
 Pipe (Yes) NA NA 39 (10.96%) 5 (0.62%) < 0.001 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.09%) 0.360 1 (0.10%) 0 (0.00%) 0.321 5 (0.54%) 1 (0.09%) 0.034 3 (0.29%) 0 (0.00%) 0.086 48 (01.00%) 7 (0.12%) < 0.001
 Hand rolled (Yes) NA NA   77 (21.63%) 6 (0.74%) < 0.001 0 (0.00%) 1 (0.09%) 0.360 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)   164 (17.77%) 11 (1.01%) < 0.001 NA NA   241 (05.01%) 18 (0.31%) < 0.001
 Cigars (Yes) NA NA 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)   0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)   0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)   2 (0.22%) 0 (0.00%) 0.124 NA NA   2 (0.04%) 0 (0.00%)  
Frequency of smoked tobacco use       < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001       < 0.001
 Current Non-smokers     131 (36.8%) 786 (96.92%)   678 (76.52%) 1029 (97.44%)   903 (86.41%) 1039 (100%)   535 (57.96%) 1070 (98.08%)   NA NA   2665 (70.45%) 4813 (98.45%)  
 Daily smokers NA NA   194 (54.49%) 20 (02.47%)   182 (20.54%) 21 (01.99%)   126 (12.06%) 0 (0.00%)   343 (37.16%) 18 (01.65%)   NA NA   845 (22.34%) 59 (01.21%)  
 5–6 days per week NA NA   3 (0.84%) 0 (0.00%)   2 (0.23%) 0 (0.00%)   7 (0.67%) 0 (0.00%)   17 (01.84%) 0 (0.00%)   NA NA   29 (0.77%) 0 (0.00%)  
 1–4 days per week NA NA   23 (06.46%) 4 (0.49%)   21 (02.37%) 6 (0.57%)   6 (0.57%) 0 (0.00%)   17 (01.84%) 0 (0.00%)   NA NA   67 (01.77%) 10 (0.20%)  
 1–3 days per month NA NA   4 (1.12%) 1 (0.12%)   0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)   2 (0.19%) 0 (0.00%)   3 (0.33%) 1 (0.09%)   NA NA   9 (0.24%) 2 (0.04%)  
 Less than once per month NA NA   1 (0.28%) 0 (0.00%)   3 (0.34%) 0 (0.00%)   0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)   0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)   NA NA   4 (0.11%) 0 (0.00%)  
Smokeless tobacco status (Yes) 13 (02.27%) 51 (05.72%) 0.002 32 (08.99%) 337 (41.55%) < 0.001 48 (05.42%) 20 (01.89%) < 0.001 67 (06.41%) 326 (31.38%) < 0.001 95 (10.29%) 114 (10.45%) 0.735 NA NA   255 (05.30%) 848 (14.39%) < 0.001
Type of smokeless tobacco Use
 Snuff (Yes) 4 (0.70%) 31 (03.48%) 0.002 18 (05.06%) 253 (31.20%) < 0.001 35 (03.95%) 16 (01.52%) < 0.001 3 (0.29%) 4 (0.38%) < 0.001 30 (03.25%) 12 (01.10%) 0.002 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 90 (01.87%) 316 (05.36%) < 0.001
 Chewing tobacco use (Yes) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 12 (01.48%) < 0.001 4 (0.45%) 4 (0.38%) < 0.001 64 (06.12%) 307 (29.55%) < 0.001 58 (06.28%) 93 (08.52%) < 0.001 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%) 126 (02.62%) 416 (07.06%) < 0.001
  1. Categorical variables are presented as number and percentage. Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test (when Chi-squared test conditions were not fulfilled) were used to assess differences
  2. NA For variables not available at site