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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the AWI-Gen cohort according to study site and for the combined dataset (All sites), stratified according to substance use (current alcohol consumption and/or current tobacco use, including smoking, chewing, and using snuff)

From: Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of tobacco and alcohol use in four sub-Saharan African countries: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults

  Agincourt Digkale Nairobi Nanoro Navrongo Soweto All sites
Current users Current non-users p-value Current users Current non-users p-value Current users Current non-users p-value Current users Current non-users p-value Current users Current non-users p-value Current users Current non-users p-value Current users Current non-users p-value
N(%) 358 (24.40%) 1107 (75.60%)   655 (43.90%) 512 (56.10%)   485 (25.00%) 1457 (75.00%)   1467 (70.40%) 617 (29.60%)   1410 (70.00%) 604 (30.00%)   872 (42.90%) 1159 (57.00%)   5247 (49.00%) 5456 (51.00%)  
Age (years) 52 (10) 51 (10) 0.1782 51 (10) 40.0 (10.5) < 0.001 47 (9) 48 (9) 0.8415 50 (10) 49 (10) < 0.001 51 (10) 51 (10) 0.3125 49 (10) 49 (10) 0.4236 50 (10) 49 (10) < 0.001
Sex    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001    0.674    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Women 85 (9.53%) 807 (90.47%)   380 (46.86%) 431 (53.14%)   91 (8.62%) 965 (91.38%)   727 (63.97%) 312 (30.03%)   628 (57.56%) 463 (42.44)%   49 (4.87%)a 957 (95.13%)a   1960 (33.25%) 3935 (66.75%)  
 Men 273 (47.64%) 300 (52.36%)   275 (77.25%) 81 (22.75%)   394 (44.47%) 492 (55.53%)   741 (70.81%) 305 (29.19%)   782 (84.72%) 141 (15.28%)   823 (80.29%) 202 (19.71%)   3287 (68.37%) 1521 (31.63%)  
Socioeconomic Status (Lowest to highest)    < 0.001    0.025    0.023    < 0.001    0.023    < 0.001    < 0.001
 1st Quintile 82 (36.28%) 144 (63.72%)   93 (63.27%) 54 (36.73%)   78 (33.19%) 157 (66.81%)   246 (73.21%) 90 (26.79%)   243 (65.32%) 129 (34.68%)   36 (15.52%) 196 (84.48%)   778 (50.26%) 770 (49.74%)  
 2nd Quintile 103 (29.68%) 244 (70.32%)   155 (58.49%) 110 (41.51%)   107 (24.77%) 325 (75.23%)   303 (75.00%) 101 (25.00%)   250 (69.44%) 110 (30.56%)   100 (20.49%) 388 (79.51%)   1018 (44.34%) 1278 (55.66%)  
 3rd Quintile 42 (22.95%) 141 (77.05%)   89 (58.17%) 64 (41.83%)   112 (24.89%) 338 (75.11%)   303 (74.81%) 102 (25.19%)   288 (74.42%) 99 (25.58%)   132 (40.87%) 191 (59.13%)   966 (50.82%) 935 (49.18%)  
 4th Quintile 80 (22.99%) 268 (77.01%)   148 (58.04%) 107 (41.96%)   85 (21.46%) 311 (78.54%)   282 (73.06%) 104 (26.94%)   346 (73.15%) 127 (26.85%)   221 (63.51%) 127 (36.49%)   1162 (52.67%) 1044 (47.33%)  
 5th Quintile 51 (14.13%) 310 (85.87%)   170 (49.13%) 176 (50.87%)   103 (24.01%) 326 (75.99%)   331 (60.62%) 215 (39.38%)   283 (67.22%) 138 (32.78%)   373 (76.59%) 114 (23.41%)   1311 (50.62%) 1279 (49.38%)  
Marital status    < 0.001    0.016    < 0.001    0.140    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Never married or co-habited 49 (36.57%) 85 (63.43%)   156 (54.17%) 132 (45.83%)   13 (15.66%) 70 (84.34%)   10 (58.82%) 7 (41.18%)   16 (80.00%) 4 (20.00%)   239 (75.63%) 77 (24.37%)   483 (56.29%) 375 (43.71%)  
 Married/living with partner 252 (25.66%) 730 (74.34%)   324 (53.64%) 280 (46.36%)   374 (28.90%) 920 (71.10%)   1271 (70.03%) 544 (29.97%)   1067 (72.05%) 414 (27.95%)   446 (53.35%) 390 (46.65%)   3734 (53.25%) 3278 (46.75%)  
 Divorced/Widowed 57 (16.33%) 292 (83.67%)   175 (63.64%) 100 (36.36%)   98 (17.38%) 466 (82.62%)   185 (75.20%) 61 (24.80%)   327 (63.87%) 185 (36.13%)   165 (30.78%) 371 (69.22%)   1007 (40.57%) 1475 (59.43%)  
Highest education completed    0.060    < 0.001    0.006    0.086    0.403    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No Formal education 106 (26.30%) 297 (73.70%)   63 (65.62%) 33 (34.38%)   25 (17.01%) 122 (82.99%)   1229 (71.54%) 489 (28.46%)   980 (69.36%) 433 (30.64%)   7 (70.00%) 3 (30.00%)   2410 (63.64%) 1377 (36.36%)  
 Primary 148 (25.74%) 427 (74.26%)   250 (64.77%) 136 (35.23%)   263 (23.69%) 847 (76.31%)   157 (65.69%) 82 (34.31%)   282 (73.63%) 101 (26.37%)   122 (16.18%) 632 (83.82%)   1222 (35.45%) 2225 (64.55%)  
 Secondary 91 (22.86%) 307 (77.14%)   328 (51.01%) 315 (48.99%)   187 (28.38%) 472 (71.62%)   62 (64.58%) 34 (35.42%)   121 (69.14%) 54 (30.86%)   620 (69.27%) 275 (30.73%)   1409 (49.16%) 1457 (50.84%)  
 Tertiary 12 (13.64%) 76 (86.36%)   14 (34.15%) 27 (65.85%)   10 (38.46%) 16 (61.54%)   15 (83.33%) 3 (16.67%)   24 (66.67%) 12 (33.33%)   106 (69.28%) 47 (30.72%)   181 (50.00%) 181 (50.00%)  
Employment status    0.700    0.259    0.168    0.380    < 0.001    0.018    < 0.001
 Unemployed 215 (24.32%) 669 (75.68%)   396 (54.70%) 328 (45.30%)   22 (19.47%) 91 (80.53%)   13 (61.90%) 8 (38.10%)   564 (75.20%) 186 (24.80%)   322 (39.75%) 488 (60.25%)   1532 (46.40%) 1770 (53.60%)  
 Employed 117 (23.40%) 383 (76.60$)   255 (58.09%) 184 (41.91%)   461 (25.25%) 1365 (74.75%)   1453 (70.67%) 603 (29.33%)   842 (66.93%) 416 (33.07%)   550 (45.05%) 671 (54.95%)   3678 (50.38%) 3622 (49.62%)  
  1. Continuous variables are presented as medians and interquartile range. Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon test has been used to assess differences
  2. Categorical variables are presented as number and percentage. Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test (when Chi-squared test conditions were not fulfilled) were used to assess differences
  3. aThis only accounts for smoking since alcohol consumption data have not been collected for women in Soweto