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Table 4 Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitance among respondents (N = 1411)

From: A survey on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and concern among Malaysians

Variable n Acceptance n (%) Hesitance n (%) P valuea
Age (year)     <.001
 18–29 574 507 (88.3) 67 (11.7)  
 30–39 341 283 (83) 58 (17)  
 40–49 246 199 (80.9) 47 (19.1)  
 50–59 168 134 (79.8) 34 (20.2)  
 60 and above 82 52 (63.4) 30 (36.6)  
Gender     .747
 Male 525 435 (82.9) 90 (17.1)  
 Female 886 740 (83.5) 146 (16.5)  
Race     .025
 Malay 901 763 (84.7) 138 (15.3)  
 Chinese 159 126 (79.2) 33 (20.8)  
 Indian 43 31 (72.1) 12 (27.9)  
 Iban 78 72 (92.3) 6 (7.7)  
 Bidayuh 56 47 (83.9) 9 (16.1)  
 Melanau 46 40 (87) 6 (13)  
 Orang Ulu 29 22 (75.9) 7 (24.1)  
 Kadazan 23 16 (69.6) 7 (30.4)  
 Dusun 23 17 (73.9) 6 (26.1)  
 Other Indigenous & Non-Malaysian 53 41 (77.4) 12 (22.6)  
Religion     .081
 Islam 1020 857 (84) 163 (16)  
 Christianity 271 228 (84.1) 43 (15.9)  
 Buddhism 80 61 (76.3) 19 (23.8)  
 Other 40 29 (72.5) 11 (27.5)  
Marital Status     .001
 Single 614 540 (87.9) 74 (12.1)  
 Married 746 594 (79.6) 152 (20.4)  
 Divorced 31 24 (77.4) 7 (22.6)  
 Widow/Widower 20 17 (85) 3 (15)  
Education     .842
 Less than tertiary 185 155 (83.8) 30 (16.2)  
 Tertiary education 1226 1020 (83.2) 206 (16.8)  
Occupation     <.001
 Medical & Health 220 177 (80.5) 43 (19.5)  
 Education 234 188 (80.3) 46 (19.7)  
 Security & Defence 31 27 (87.1) 4 (12.9)  
 Industrial & 63 55 (87.3) 8 (12.7)  
Manufacturing
 Construction 31 25 (80.6) 6 (19.4)  
 Management & Administrative 141 123 (87.2) 18 (12.8)  
 Services 119 96 (80.7) 23 (19.3)  
 Student 358 324 (90.5) 34 (9.5)  
 Pensioner 82 53 (64.6) 29 (35.4)  
 Unemployed 99 82 (82.8) 17 (17.2)  
 Other 33 25 (75.8) 8 (24.2)  
Monthly Income (RM)     .044
 0–1200 501 434 (86.6) 67 (13.4)  
 1201–4000 356 297 (83.4) 59 (16.6)  
 4001–8000 354 282 (79.7) 72 (20.3)  
  > 8000 200 162 (81) 38 (19)  
Current Residence     .018
 Sarawak 687 578 (84.1) 109 (15.8)  
 Sabah & WP Labuan 102 75 (73.5) 27 (26.5)  
 Northern Zone* 118 97 (82.2) 21 (17.8)  
 Middle Zone* 336 289 (86) 47 (14)  
 Southern Zone* 117 99 (84.6) 18 (15.4)  
 East Coast Zone* 51 37 (72.5) 14 (27.5)  
Diabetes Mellitus     .028
 No 1314 1102 (83.9) 212 (16.1)  
 Yes 97 73 (75.3) 24 (24.7)  
 Hypertension     .140
  No 1231 1032 (83.8) 199 (16.2)  
  Yes 180 143 (79.4) 37 (20.6)  
Hypercholesterolemia     .014
 No 1224 1031 (84.2) 193 (15.8)  
 Yes 187 144 (77) 43 (23)  
 Respiratory Disorder     .184
  No 1355 1132 (83.5) 223 (16.5)  
  Yes 56 43 (76.8) 13 (23.2)  
 Renal Disorder     .543b
  No 1392 1160 (83.3) 232 (16.7)  
  Yes 19 15 (78.9) 4 (21.1)  
 Heart Disease     .301b
  No 1383 1154 (83.4) 229 (16.6)  
  Yes 28 21 (75) 7 (25)  
 Cancer     1b
  No 1403 1168 (83.3) 235 (16.7)  
  Yes 8 7 (87.5) 1 (12.5)  
 Social Media     .072
  No 36 26 (72.2) 10 (27.8)  
  Yes 1375 1149 (83.6) 226 (16.4)  
 Mass Media     .774
  No 84 69 (82.1) 15 (17.9)  
  Yes 1327 1106 (83.3) 221 (16.7)  
 Healthcare Workers     .981
  No 567 472 (83.2) 95 (16.8)  
  Yes 844 703 (83.3) 141 (16.7)  
 Friends, family, etc.     .746
  No
  Yes
292 245 (83.9) 47 (16.1)  
1119 930 (83.1) 189 (16.9)  
  1. aChi-square test for independence bFisher’s exact test
  2. *Northern Zone: Kedah, Perak, Pulau Pinang, Perlis
  3. *Middle Zone: Selangor, WP Kuala Lumpur, WP Putrajaya
  4. *Southern Zone: Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor
  5. *East Coast Zone: Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang