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Table 4 Multilevel mixed effect analysis of individual and community level factors associated with modern contraceptive use among married women

From: Multilevel mixed effects analysis of individual and community level factors associated with modern contraceptive use among married women in Uganda

Characteristic Model 1
Empty
Model 2
AOR(95% CI)
Model 3
AOR(95% CI)
Model 4
AOR(95% CI)
Woman’s age   1.03(1.01–1.04)**   1.03(1.01–1.04)**
 15–24a   1.00   1.00
 25–34   1.30(1.09–1.55)**   1.30(1.09–1.55)**
 35–49   1.26(0.92–1.74)   1.26(0.91–1.73)
Religion
 Catholica   1.00   1.00
 Anglican   1.13(1.01–1.27)*   1.09(0.97–1.22)
 Muslim   0.83(0.70–0.97)*   0.78(0.66–0.91)**
 Other   0.91(0.79–1.05)   0.90(0.78–1.04)
Level of educational attainment
 No educationa   1.00   1.00
 Primary   1.63(1.38–1.93)**   1.50(1.27–1.78)**
 Secondary/Higher   2.17(1.78–2.64)**   1.93(1.58–2.37)**
Wealth index
 Poora   1.00   1.00
 Middle   1.42(1.24–1.63)**   1.27(1.10–1.46)**
 Rich   1.61(1.41–1.83)**   1.32(1.14–1.53)**
Working status
 Not workinga   1.00   1.00
 currently working   1.15(1.02–1.31)*   1.13(0.99–1.28)
Spousal age difference
 0–4a   1.00   1.00
 5–9   1.08(0.97–1.21)   1.07(0.96–1.19)
  ≥ 10   0.87(0.76–0.98)*   0.86(0.76–0.98)*
Age at first birth   0.94(0.91–0.96)**   0.94(0.92–0.96)**
  < 20a   1.00   1.00
  ≥ 20   0.81(0.69–0.95)*   0.82(0.70–0.96)*
Parity
 0–2a   1.00   1.00
 3–5   0.93(0.80–1.07)   0.94(0.81–1.09)
 6+   0.72(0.58–0.90)**   0.76(0.61–0.94)*
Woman’s empowerment
 Noa   1.00   1.00
 Yes   0.94(0.84–1.06)   0.95(0.84–1.07)
Media exposure to family planning messages
 Noa   1.00   1.00
 Yes   1.08(0.97–1.20)   1.03(0.92–1.15)
Place of residence
 Urbana    1.00 1.00
 Rural    0.92(0.78–1.09) 0.94(0.79–1.11)
Region
 Centrala    1.00 1.00
 Eastern    0.87(0.72–1.05) 0.88(0.73–1.07)
 Western    1.06(0.89–1.27) 1.08(0.90–1.29)
 Northern    0.75(0.61–0.93)** 0.83(0.67–1.04)
Distance to health facility
 Big problema    1.00 1.00
 Not a big problem    1.16(1.04–1.28)** 1.18(1.06–1.31)**
Community education
 Lowa    1.00 1.00
 High    1.52(1.30–1.78)** 1.38(1.17–1.62)**
Community poverty
 Lowa    1.00 1.00
 High    0.66(0.56–0.79)** 0.78(0.65–0.93)**
Community exposure to family planning messages
 Lowa    1.00 1.00
 High    1.28(1.12–1.46)** 1.24(1.08–1.42)**
Community women working
 Lowa    1.00 1.00
 High    1.31(1.15–1.49)** 1.22(1.06–1.39)**
Community mean age at first marriage    0.92(0.87–0.96)** 0.93(0.88–0.98)**
Community mean age at sexual debut    0.89(0.82–0.95)** 0.91(0.85–0.98)**
 Random effect     
 Community level variance (SE) 0.39(0.04)** 0.27(0.04)** 0.24(0.03)** 0.22(0.03)**
 ICC (%) 10.7 7.5 6.8 6.3
 PCV (%) Reference 30.8 38.5 43.6
Model fit statistics
 Log likelihood − 5822 − 5466 − 5726 -5419
 AIC 11,648 10,973 11,477 10,902
  1. a is a Reference category, * Significant at p < 0.05, ** significant at p < 0.01; AOR is the adjusted odds ratio; SE is the standard error; ICC is the inter-cluster correlation coefficient; PCV is the Proportional Change in Variance