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Table 4 Comparison of thalassemia-related health literacy and health behaviors among Thai, Myanmar, and Cambodian subjects

From: Feasibility of and barriers to thalassemia screening in migrant populations: a cross-sectional study of Myanmar and Cambodian migrants in Thailand

  Thai Myanmar Cambodian
(N = 197) (N = 119) (N = 176)
Health-seeking Behaviors
 First Point of Contact When Sick
  Drug store (%) 71 (37.6) 47 (40.2) 77 (44.8)
  Doctor (%) 115 (60.9) 65 (55.6) 88 (51.2)
  Traditional healer (%) 1 (0.5) 3 (2.6) 3 (1.7)
  Other (%)a 2 (1.1) 2 (1.7) 4 (2.3)
 Median Number of Doctor Visits in 1 year (IQR) 1 (0–3) 0 (0–1) 0 (0–2)
 Method of Payment for Healthcare
  Public Insurance (%) 82 (44.1) 37 (31.4) 80 (46.2)
  Employer Insurance (%) 52 (28.0) 29 (24.6) 30 (17.3)
  Private Insurance (%) 18 (9.7) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.6)
  Cash (%) 19 (10.2) 49 (41.5) 53 (30.6)
  Other (%)b 15 (8.1) 2 (1.7) 9 (5.2)
 Want to test self for thalassemia (%)c 25 (62.5) 67 (61.5) 147 (86.5)
 Want to test baby for thalassemia (%)c 29 (72.5) 77 (70.6) 145 (86.8)
 Want to test partner for thalassemia (%)c 29 (78.4) 81 (74.3) 150 (88.8)
 Best Method for Thalassemia Education
  Consultation with doctor (%) 26 (68.4) 93 (86.9) 144 (84.2)
  Brochure (%) 1 (2.6) 8 (7.5) 10 (5.9)
  Employer workshop (%) 1 (2.6) 1 (0.9) 2 (1.2)
  Government workshop (%) 5 (13.2) 2 (1.9) 5 (2.9)
  Other (%)d 5 (13.2) 3 (2.8) 10 (5.9)
Thalassemia-related Health Literacy
 Aware of Anemia (%) 151 (80.3) 23 (20.0) 24 (13.7)
 Aware of Thalassemia (%) 156 (79.6) 8 (6.8) 4 (2.3)
 Personal History of:
  Anemia (%) 31 (16.0) 7 (6.0) 7 (4.1)
  Thalassemia (%) 12 (6.2) 0 3 (1.7)
  Transfusion (%) 13 (6.7) 1 (0.9) 10 (5.8)
  Miscarriage (%) 15 (7.9) 8 (6.9) 11 (6.4)
 Family History of:
  Anemia (%) 34 (17.4) 4 (3.5) 9 (5.2)
  Thalassemia (%) 11 (5.7) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.6)
  Transfusion (%) 15 (7.8) 2 (1.7) 6 (3.5)
  Miscarriage (%) 17 (8.9) 5 (4.4) 8 (4.6)
  1. IQR Inter-quartile range
  2. a Other preferred sources of medical care included on-site clinics provided by the employer in workplaces such as factories, or multiple sources of medical care were selected
  3. b Other methods of payment include civil insurance and the selection of multiple sources of medical care
  4. c Subjects unaware of thalassemia were asked whether they would want to test themselves, their babies, or their partners for an inherited disease, such as thalassemia
  5. d Other preferred methods of education included mass media (television, internet), word of mouth (friends, employers, spouse), or multiple sources