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Table 4 Mothers’ opinion about Distance learning by School

From: Distance learning in Italian primary and middle school children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey

  Primary school Middle school Total OR CI 95% p-value
Mother effort
 Yes 798 (73.5) 199 (46.8) 997 (66.0) 3.15 (2.50–3.98) < 0.0001
 No 287 (26.5) 226 (53.2) 513 (34.0) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 63 28 91    
Mother commitment
 Yes 896 (82.5) 300 (68.0) 1.196 (78.3) 2.21 (1.71–2.85)  
 No 190 (17.5) 141 (32.0) 331 (21.7) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
Missing 62 12 74    
Replacing teachers
 Yes 936 (85.0) 260 (59.5) 1.196 (77.8) 3.86 (2.99–4.97)  
 No 165 (15.0) 177 (40.5) 342 (22.2) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
Missing 47 16 63    
Difficulties with (flag)
 Organisation 541 (49.7) 212 (51.0) 753 (50.1) 0.87 (0.64–1.17) 0.3526
 Time dedicated 895 (82.3) 223 (53.6) 1.118 (74.3) 3.53 (2.54–4.88) < 0.0001
 Technologies 523 (48.1) 266 (63.9) 789 (52.5) 0.52 (0.38–0.71) < 0.0001
Missing 60 37 97    
Child autonomy       
 Yes 205 (18.1) 214 (47.9) 419 (26.6) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 925 (81.9) 233 (52.1) 1.158 (73.4) 4.14 (3.26–5.269  
Missing 18 6 24    
Child commitment       
 Yes 458 (41.1) 276 (63.3) 734 (47.3) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 657 (58.9) 160 (36.7) 817 (52.7) 0.40 (0.32–0.51)  
Missing 33 17 50    
Scarce learning       
 Yes 455 (40.6) 130 (29.5) 585 (37.4) 1.63 (1.29–2.07) < 0.0001
 No 667 (59.4) 311 (70.5) 978 (62.6) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 26 12 38    
Distance learning in the future
 Yes 262 (23.8) 165 (37.9) 427 (27.8) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 838 (76.2) 270 (62.1) 1.108 (72.2) 1.95 (1.54–2.48)  
Missing 48 18 66    
Child care pre COVID-19 (flag)
 Parents 821 (72.5) 333 (74.7) 1.154 (73.1) 0.90 (0.70–1.15) 0.3885
 Grandparents 541 (47.8) 178 (39.9) 719 (45.6) 1.38 (1.10–1.72) 0.0046
 Others 230 (20.3) 74 (16.6) 304 (19.3) 1.28 (0.96–1.71) 0.0910
Missing 16 7 23    
Child care post COVID-19 (flag)
 Parents 963 (84.9) 391 (87.9) 1.354 (85.8) 0.78 (0.56–1.08) 0.1321
 Grandparents 361 (31.8) 94 (21.1) 455 (28.8) 1.74 (1.35–2.26) < 0.0001
 Others 164 (14.5) 53 (11.9) 217 (13.7) 1.25 (0.90–1.74) 0.1852
Missing 14 8 22