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Table 3 Children attitude and behaviour by School

From: Distance learning in Italian primary and middle school children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey

  Primary school Middle school Total OR CI 95% p-value
Attention span
  ≤ 20 min 317 (28.3) 60 (13.6) 377 (24.2) 2.39 (1.75–3.25) < 0.0001
 20 min- 1 h 673 (60.1) 304 (68.9) 977 (62.6) 1.00 (Ref.)  
  > 1 h 129 (11.5) 77 (17.5) 206 (13.2) 0.76 (0.55–1.03)  
Missing 29 12 41    
Breaks frequency
 Every 10 min 239 (21.6) 37 (8.4) 276 (17.9) 2.25 (1.53–3.30) < 0.0001
 Every 20–30 min 523 (47.2) 182 (41.6) 705 (45.6) 1.00 (Ref.)  
 Every 1 h 345 (31.2) 219 (50.0) 564 (36.5) 0.55 (0.43–0.70)  
Missing 41 15 56    
Restlessness during distance learning
 Yes 534 (48.3) 179 (40.5) 713 (46.1) 1.37 (1.10–1.72) 0.0055
 No 572 (51.7) 263 (59.5) 835 (53.9) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 42 11 53    
Distance learning duration
  ≤ 2 h 737 (65.5) 89 (19.8) 826 (52.5) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 2–4 h 340 (30.2) 267 (59.5) 607 (38.6) 0.15 (0.12–0.20)  
 4–6 h 48 (4.3) 93 (20.7) 141 (9.0) 0.06 (0.04–0.09)  
Missing 23 4 27    
Screen time other than distance learning
  ≤ 2 h 660 (66.8) 133 (33.8) 793 (57.4) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 2–4 h 302 (30.6) 201 (51.1) 503 (36.4) 0.30 (0.23–0.39)  
 4–6 h 26 (2.6) 59 (15.0) 85 (6.2) 0.09 (0.05–0.15)  
Missing 160 60 220    
Internet activities (flag)
 Videogames 463 (43.2) 264 (59.1) 727 (47.9) 0.53 (0.42–0.66) < 0.0001
 Tutorial 387 (36.1) 197 (44.1) 584 (38.5) 0.72 (0.57–0.90) 0.0038
 Film/ TV series 778 (72.6) 303 (67.8) 1.081 (71.2)   1.26 (0.99–1.60) 0.0568
 Social 122 (11.4) 201 (45.0) 323 (21.3) 0.16 (0.12–0.21) < 0.0001
 Study 310 (28.9) 174 (38.9) 484 (31.9) 0.64 (0.51–0.81) 0.0001
Missing 77 6 83    
Behaviour changes
 Yes 692 (62.5) 241 (54.5) 933 (60.2) 1.39 (1.11–1.73) 0.0040
 No 416 (37.5) 201 (45.5) 617 (39.8) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 40 11 51    
Symptoms (flag)       
 Restlessness 459 (69.1) 129 (56.6) 588 (65.9) 1.72 (1.26–2.34) 0.0006
 Aggressiveness 221 (33.3) 57 (25.0) 278 (31.2) 1.50 (1.06–2.10) 0.0198
 Anxiety 176 (26.5) 78 (34.2) 254 (28.5) 0.69 (0.50–0.96) 0.0261
 Sleeping rhythm 270 (40.7) 96 (42.1) 366 (41.0) 0.94 (0.69–1.28) 0.7024
 Mood lability 107 (16.1) 43 (18.9) 150 (16.8) 0.83 (0.56–1.22) 0.3390
Missing 28 13 41    
Restlessness
 No 649 (59.3) 313 (71.0) 962 (62.7) 1.00 (Ref) < 0.0001
 Mild 103 (9.4) 45 (10.2) 148 (9.6) 1.10 (0.76–1.61)  
 Moderate 274 (25.0) 72 (16.3) 346 (22.5) 1.84 (1.37–2.46)  
 Severe 68 (6.2) 11 (2.5) 79 (5.1) 1.50 (1.06–2.10)  
Missing 54 12 66    
Aggressiveness
 No 887 (81.8) 385 (87.7) 1.272 (83.5) 1.00 (Ref) 0.0419
 Mild 41 (3.8) 9 (2.1) 50 (3.3) 1.98 (0.95–4.1)  
 Moderate 117 (10.8) 34 (7.7) 151 (9.9) 1.49 (1.00–2.23)  
 Severe 39 (3.6) 11 (2.5) 50 (3.3) 1.54 (0.78–3.04)  
Missing 64 14 78    
Anxiety
 No 932 (84.3) 364 (82.4) 1.296 (83.7) 1.00 (Ref) 0.4920
 Mild 52 (4.7) 24 (5.4) 76 (4.9) 0.85 (0.51–1.39)  
 Moderate 89 (8.0) 44 (10.0) 133 (8.6) 0.79 (0.54–1.16)  
 Severe 33 (3.0) 10 (2.3) 43 (2.8) 1.29 (0.63–2.64)  
Missing 42 11 53    
Sleeping rhythm
 No 838 (76.3) 346 (79.0) 1184 (77.1) 1.00 (Ref) 0.1512
 Mild 62 (5.6) 13 (3.0) 75 (4.9) 1.97 (1.07–3.63)  
 Moderate 112 (10.2) 48 (11.0) 160 (10.4) 0.96 (0.67–1.38)  
 Severe 86 (7.8) 31 (7.1) 117 (7.6) 1.15 (0.75–1.76)  
Missing 50 15 65    
Mood lability
 No 1001 (91.0) 399 (90.5) 1.400 (90.9) 1.00 (Ref) 0.3359
 Mild 38 (3.5) 10 (2.3) 48 (3.1) 1.51 (0.75–3.07)  
 Moderate 42 (3.8) 24 (5.4) 66 (4.3) 0.70 (0.42–1.17)  
 Severe 19 (1.7) 8 (1.8) 27 (1.8) 0.95 (0.41–2.18)  
Missing 48 12 60