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Table 1 Socio-demographics mothers and children variables by School

From: Distance learning in Italian primary and middle school children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey

  Primary school Middle school Total OR CI 95% p-value
Mothers
 Age 42,5 (39,0 -46,0) 46,0 (43,0- 49,0) 44,0 (39–49)    < 0.0001
Region
 North 775 (68.1) 337 (75.6) 1.112 (70.2) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.0021
 Centre 214 (18.8) 52 (11.7) 266 (16.8) 1.79 (1.29–2.49)  
 South 149 (13.1) 57 (12.8) 206 (13.0) 1.14 (0.82–1.58)  
Missing 10 7 17    
Education
 First level 187 (17.5) 95 (21.7) 282 (18.7) 0.64 (0.48–0.87) 0.0019
 Second level 352 (33.0) 170 (38.8) 522 (34.7) 0.68 (0.53–0.87)  
 Tertiary level 528 (49.5) 173 (39.5) 701 (46.6) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 81 15 96    
Actually employed
 Yes 684 (65.7) 286 (66.7) 970 (66.0) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.7238
 No 357 (34.3) 143 (33.3) 500 (34.0) 1.04 (0.82–1.32)  
Missing 107 24 131    
Work
 Employers 724 (65.2) 277 (63.5) 1.001 (64.7) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.5101
 Freelance 203 (18.3) 78 (17.9) 281 (18.2) 1.00 (0.74–1.34)  
 Housewives 128 (11.5) 62 (14.2) 190 (12.3) 0.79 (0.57–1.10)  
 Unemployed 56 (5.0) 19 (4.4) 75 (4.8)    
Missing 37 17 54    
Smart working
 Yes 408 (61.5) 181 (64.9) 589 (62.5) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.3342
 No 255 (38.5) 98 (35.1) 353 (37.5) 1.15 (0.86–1.54)  
Missing 21 7 28    
Difficulties balance work/child
 Yes 578 (87.8) 192 (69.6) 770 (82.4) 3.16 (2.23–4.47) < 0.0001
 No 80 (12.2) 84 (30.4) 164 (17.6) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 26 10 36    
Children 1148 453 1601    
 Age 8,0 (7,0 - 9,0) 12,0 (11,0 - 13,0) 9,0 (7,0 - 11,0)    < 0.0001
Gender
 Female 545 (48.2) 213 (47.7) 758 (48.1) 0.98 (0.78–1.22) 0.8357
 Male 585 (51.8) 234 (52.3) 819 (51.9) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 18 6 24    
Brothers/Sisters
 Yes 637 (57.9) 307 (70.1) 944 (61.4) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 463 (42.1) 131 (29.9) 594 (38.6) 1.70 (1.34–2.16)  
Missing 48 15 63    
Type of School
 Public 917 (88.8) 418 (93.9) 1.335 (90.3) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.0021
 Private 116 (11.2) 27 (6.1) 143 (9.7) 1.96 (1.27–3.02)  
Missing 115 8 123    
School performance
 No sufficient 11 (1.0) 8 (1.8) 19 (1.2) 0.48 (0.19–1.21) < 0.0001
 Sufficient 94 (8.4) 65 (14.4) 159 (10.2) 0.50 (0.34–0.73)  
 Good 305 (27.3) 180 (40.0) 485 (31.0) 0.59 (0.45–0.77)  
 Very good 378 (33.9) 131 (29.1) 509 (32.5) 1.00 (Ref.)  
 Excellent 328 (29.4) 66 (14.7) 394 (25.2) 1.72 (1.24–2.40)  
Missing 32 3 35    
Total 1148 435 1601