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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of effect on health, work and social activities among informal caregivers

From: Factors associated with informal caregiving and its effects on health, work, and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019

Factor Effect on health Effect on work Effect on social activities
Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
Care recipient’s need for care
Type of care provided
  Healthcarea,b,c
   Yes 1.03 (0.41, 2.65)   1.41 (0.62, 3.18)   1.24 (0.53, 2.90)  
   No Ref   Ref   Ref  
  Personal care and othersb,c
   Yes 2.13 (0.63, 7.32) 2.25 (0.62,8.20) 1.55 (0.65, 3.69)   1.46 (0.62, 3.41)  
   No Ref Ref Ref   Ref  
Individual dispositional factors
Sex
  Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Female 3.67 (1.93,6.98) 3.63 (1.73, 7.61)*** 1.60 (0.98, 2.62) 1.51 (0.95,2.40) 2.16 (1.21,3.88) 1.96 (1.04, 3.69)*
Age group (years)
  18–34 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  35–59 1.29 (0.55, 0.03) 1.00 (0.41, 2.47) 1.32 (0.68, 2.57) 1.24 (0.66, 2.32) 0.95 (0.47,1.95) 0.84 (0.41,1.68)
  60 and above 1.67 (0.65, 4.28) 0.85 (0.29, 2.46) 1.41 (0.55, 3.57) 1.15 (0.50, 2.64) 1.00 (0.44, 2.28) 0.74 (0.31,1.72)
Marital statusa,b,c
  Not married Ref   Ref   Ref  
  Married 1.09 (0.55,2.13)   0.83 (0.44, 1.56)   0.84 (0.46, 1.52)  
Ethnicitya
  Malay Ref   Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Non-malay 0.96 (0.53,1.75)   2.16 (1.28, 3.67) 2.15 (1.29,3.58)** 1.72 (0.95, 3.13) 1.77 (0.99,3.16)
Education levela,b,c
  No formal education 1.98 (0.46, 8.53)   0.93 (0.33, 2.60)   1.16 (0.31, 4.29)  
  Primary 1.35 (0.48,3.77)   1.54 (0.62, 3.82)   1.02 (0.41, 2.58)  
  Secondary 1.17 (0.55,2.49)   1.45 (0.65, 3.24)   1.12 (0.53, 2.35)  
  Tertiary Ref   Ref   Ref  
Employment statusb
  No 1.77 (0.99,3.19) 0.85 (0.41, 1.75) 1.28 (0.71, 2.32)   1.46 (0.84, 2.56) 1.12 (0.60,2.08)
  Yes Ref Ref Ref   Ref Ref
Household income groupb,c
  Low 1.62 (0.58,4.48) 2.11 (0.94, 4.74) 1.23 (0.46, 3.30)   1.57 (0.73, 3.40)  
  Middle 0.88 (0.32,2.36) 2.15 (0.95, 4.89) 1.32 (0.51, 3.44)   1.15 (0.52,2.54)  
  High Ref Ref Ref   Ref  
Residencya
  Urban 0.99 (0.55,1.79)   1.46 (0.87, 2.45) 1.36 (0.81, 2.29) 1.58 (0.87,2.89) 1.48 (0.83,2.65)
  Rural Ref   Ref Ref Ref Ref
Received training
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 1.93 (1.05, 3.54) 2.10 (1.10,4.00)* 1.84 (0.95,3.54) 2.07 (1.10, 3.89)* 1.84 (1.02,3.33) 2.19 (1.22,3.93)**
Duration of careb
  Less than 2 years Ref Ref Ref   Ref Ref
  2 years and more 1.87 (1.11, 3.16) 1.91 (1.08, 3.37)* 1.03 (0.57,1.88)   1.87 (1.05,3.32) 1.91 (0.98,3.70)
Intensity of care (in a week)a,b,c
  19 h and less Ref   Ref   Ref  
  20 h and above 0.78 (0.42, 1.44)   1.11 (0.61, 2.02)   1.19 (0.65,2.19)  
Self-reported illnessb,c
  No Ref Ref Ref   Ref  
  Yes 1.64 (0.89, 3.03) 1.53 (0.84, 2.76) 1.18 (0.61, 2.30)   0.92 (0.52, 1.64)  
Perceived health statusb,c
  Very poor to fair 1.86 (0.97, 3.59) 1.58 (0.77, 3.27) 0.97 (0.55, 1.73)   1.29 (0.67,2.47)  
  Good to excellent Ref Ref Ref   Ref  
Presence of DM, HPT or HPCb,c
  No Ref Ref Ref   Ref  
  Yes 2.03 (1.08, 3.8) 1.74 (0.82, 3.70) 1.12 (0.61, 2.06)   0.92 (0.50,1.69)  
Contextual factors
Living in the same householda,b,c
  No Ref   Ref   Ref  
  Yes 1.09 (0.38, 3.12)   0.94 (0.43,2.02)   1.31 (0.46,3.72)  
Had assistance
  No 2.12 (1.14, 3.93) 1.74 (0.88, 3.45) 1.99 (1.01, 3.93) 2.02 (1.06,3.83)* 1.87 (1.01,3.45) 1.66 (0.92,3.00)
  Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1. CI Confidence Interval, OR Odds Ratio, Ref Reference category, DM Diabetes Mellitus, HPT Hypertension, HPC, Hypercholesterolemia; a p-value > 0.25 for univariate analysis effect on health; b p-value > 0.25 for univariate analysis effect on work; c p-value > 0.25 for univariate analysis effect on social; * p-value < 0.05; ** p-value < 0.01; ***p-value < 0.001; # including other assistance. Area under ROC curve for model effect on health = 0.7495; Area under ROC curve for model effect on work = 0.6716; Area under ROC curve for model effect on social = 0.6876