Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of informal caregivers and non-caregivers (N = 11,674)

From: Factors associated with informal caregiving and its effects on health, work, and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019

Characteristic Overall Caregivers Non-caregivers p-value
n (weighted %) n (weighted %) n (weighted %)
Care recipient’s need for care
Type of care provided
  Healthcare a
   Yes 592 (83.6) 592 (83.6) n/a
   No 84 (11.8) 84 (11.8) n/a
  Personal care and others a
   No 550 (19.2) 550 (19.2) n/a
   Yes 125 (76.1) 125 (76.1) n/a
Individual dispositional factors
Sex
  Male 5517 (49.9) 275 (38.3) 5242 (50.6) < 0.001
  Female 6157 (50.1) 424 (61.7) 5733 (49.4)  
Age group (years)
  18–35 3729 (44.4) 149 (32.7) 3580 (45.1) < 0.001
  36–59 5441 (40.8) 376 (48.8) 5065 (40.3)  
  60 and above 2504 (14.8) 174 (18.5) 2330 (14.5)  
Marital statusa
  Not married 3738 (37.0) 201 (32.4) 3537 (37.3) 0.055
  Married 7927 (62.9) 498 (67.6) 7429 (62.6)  
Ethnicity
  Malay 7642 (51.3) 469 (56.5) 7173 (51.0) 0.349
  Non-Malay 4032 (48.7) 230 (43.5) 3802 (49.0)  
Education levela
  No formal education 679 (5.4) 38 (5.9) 641 (5.4) 0.044
  Primary 2540 (19.7) 162 (19.0) 2378 (19.7)  
  Secondary 5554 (48.7) 357 (52.7) 5197 (48.5)  
  Tertiary 2862 (25.8) 142 (22.4) 2720 (26.0)  
Employment statusa
  No 4884 (37.8) 338 (45.5) 4546 (37.4) < 0.001
  Yes 6781 (62.1) 361 (54.5) 6420 (62.6)  
Household income groupa
  Low 4791 (40.3) 343 (46.8) 4448 (39.9) < 0.001
  Middle 4551 (39.6) 261 (38.1) 4290 (39.7)  
  High 2247 (19.4) 93 (15.0) 2154 (19.7)  
Residency
  Urban 7015 (75.6) 424 (73.5) 6591 (75.7) 0.752
  Rural 4769 (24.3) 275 (26.5) 4384 (24.3)  
Received traininga
  No 531 (76.6) 531 (76.6) n/a
  Yes 142 (18.4) 142 (18.4) n/a
Duration of care
  Less than 2 years 237 (36.2) 237 (36.2) n/a
  2 years and more 462 (63.8) 462 (63.8) n/a
Intensity of care (in a week)a
  19 h and less 410 (57.1) 410 (57.1) n/a
  20 h and above 236 (35.1) 236 (35.1) n/a
Self-reported illnessa
  No 8900 (79.0) 468 (67.3) 8432 (79.7) < 0.001
  Yes 2747 (20.8) 230 (32.6) 2517 (20.1)  
Perceived health statusa
  Very poor to poor 2842 (20.7) 199 (26.4) 2643 (20.3) 0.007
  Fair to excellent 8751 (78.5) 493 (72.5) 8258 (78.9)  
Presence of DM, HPT or HPCa
  No 8142 (20.7) 449 (68.9) 7693 (76.4) 0.001
  Yes 3311 (78.5) 237 (28.6) 3074 (21.5)  
Contextual factors
Living in the same household
  No 93 (15.0) 93 (15.0) n/a
  Yes 606 (85.0) 606 (85.0) n/a
Had assistance
  No 217 (32.4) 217 (32.4) n/a
  Yes 482 (67.6) 482 (67.6) n/a
  1. n/a not applicable, DM Diabetes Mellitus, HPT Hypertension, HPC Hypercholesterolemia; a Consists of missing values (< 5%)