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Table 4 Odds of self-reported antibiotic use by knowledge about infections and antibiotic resistance, and covariates. HSNI14/15

From: Knowledge about infections is associated with antibiotic use: cross-sectional evidence from the health survey Northern Ireland

  Odds of self-reported antibiotic use in the past 12 months
Unadjusted   Adjusted†  
OR (95% CI) ‡ P OR (95% CI) ‡ Pa
Knowledge score (0–6)
 0 (lowest knowledge) 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
 1 1.20 (0.73–1.98) 0.476 1.15 (0.65–2.01) 0.633
 2 1.24 (0.79–1.94) 0.358 1.19 (0.76–1.86) 0.452
 3 1.57 (1.15–2.12) 0.004 1.60 (1.16–2.20) 0.004
 4 1.29 (0.96–1.75) 0.094 1.35 (0.98–1.85) 0.064
 5 1.37 (1.02–1.86) 0.039 1.46 (1.06–2.00) 0.020
 6 (highest knowledge) 1.81 (1.32–2.47) < 0.001 2.03 (1.46–2.81) < 0.001
Sex
Male 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
Female 1.57 (1.36–1.82) < 0.001 1.54 (1.32–1.79) < 0.001
Age (years)
16–24 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
25–44 1.02 (0.77–1.37) 0.873 0.93 (0.69–1.25) 0.637
45–64 0.91 (0.69–1.22) 0.539 0.71 (0.52–0.96) 0.024
65+ 1.20 (0.90–1.61) 0.211 0.85 (0.63–1.16) 0.305
Current smoker
No 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
Yes 1.29 (1.09–1.53) 0.003 1.12 (0.94–1.35) 0.212
Alcohol drinker
Non-drinker 1.00 (ref)    
Drinker 0.92 (0.78–1.08) 0.314   
Deprivation quintiles
1(most deprived) 1.14 (0.91–1.43) 0.254 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.922
2 0.95 (0.77–1.18) 0.656 0.94 (0.75–1.17) 0.591
3 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
4 0.73 (0.59–0.90) 0.003 0.76 (0.61–0.95) 0.014
5(least deprived) 0.70 (0.56–0.87) 0.001 0.73 (0.58–0.92) 0.007
Self-rated health
Good 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
Fairly 1.66 (1.41–1.96) < 0.001 1.71 (1.43–2.04) < 0.001
Not good 3.43 (2.84–4.14) < 0.001 3.53 (2.84–4.40) < 0.001
Satisfaction with life
Satisfied 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 1.35 (1.05–1.73) 0.018 0.81 (0.62–1.07) 0.132
Dissatisfied 2.26 (1.66–3.09) < 0.001 1.21 (0.82–1.78) 0.335
  1. ‡ Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) with Robust standards errors
  2. † Adjusted for sex, age, cigarette smoking, deprivation quintiles, self-rated general health, and satisfaction with life based on P values < 0.250 in univariate analyses
  3. a: P value for trend of knowledge score was < 0.001
  4. HSNI: The Health Survey of Northern Ireland