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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of Subjective Social Status ladder quartiles, by sociodemographic and household characteristics

From: Examining the relation between the subjective and objective social status with health reported needs and health-seeking behaviour in Dande, Angola

Variable 1st quartile 2nd quartile 3rd quartile 4th quartile p-value
Categories n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Place of residence
 Urban 2804 (31.6) 1647 (18.5) 2363 (26.6) 2072 (23.3) < 0.001*
 Rural 1185 (54.1) 430 (19.6) 391 (17.9) 184 (8.4)  
Sex
 Female 2256 (33.7) 1286 (19.2) 1684 (25.2) 1460 (21.8) < 0.001*
 Male 1690 (39.3) 773 (18.0) 1048 (24.4) 785 (18.3)  
Age
 Mean ± sd 40.09 ± 17.17 37.84 ± 16.16 36.93 ± 14.98 35.18 ± 13.52 < 0.001‡
Completed years of schooling
 Mean ± sd 4.44 ± 3.80 4.57 ± 3.77 5.00 ± 4.02 5.94 ± 4.32 < 0.001‡
Nr. of household rooms
 Mean ± sd 2.52 ± 1.22 2.76 ± 1.31 2.74 ± 1.36 3.26 ± 1.45 < 0.001‡
Nr. of household residents      
 Mean ± sd 3.88 ± 2.56 4.52 ± 2.70 4.59 ± 2.68 5.36 ± 2.70 < 0.001‡
Crowding
 Not crowding 3668 (36.4) 1891 (18.7) 2455 (24.3) 2074 (20.6) < 0.001*
 Overcrowding 321 (32.5) 186 (18.8) 299 (30.3) 182 (18.4)  
Kitchen
 Yes 1433 (30.1) 913 (19.2) 1158 (24.3) 1257 (26.4) < 0.001*
 No 2556 (40.5) 1164 (18.4) 1596 (25.3) 999 (15.8)  
Latrine
 Yes 2576 (32.0) 1513 (18.8) 2073 (25.8) 1878 (23.4) < 0.001*
 No 1413 (46.6) 564 (18.6) 681 (22.4) 377 (12.4)  
Do household members own
 Electricity Yes 2535 (30.6) 1564 (18.9) 2158 (26.0) 2028 (24.5) < 0.001*
 No 1451 (52.1) 511 (18.3) 596 (21.4) 228 (8.2)  
 Generator Yes 365 (24.3) 278 (18.5) 372 (24.7) 490 (32.6) < 0.001*
 No 3622 (37.9) 1799 (18.8) 2381 (24.9) 1766 (18.5)  
 Radio Yes 1938 (30.6) 1155 (18.2) 1696 (26.8) 1544 (24.4) < 0.001*
 No 2050 (43.3) 922 (19.5) 1057 (22.3) 710 (15.0)  
 Television Yes 2305 (28.8) 1520 (19.0) 2139 (26.7) 2045 (25.5) < 0.001*
 No 1683 (54.9) 556 (18.1) 615 (20.1) 210 (6.9)  
 Cell phone Yes 2627 (30.5) 1605 (18.7) 2268 (26.4) 2104 (24.5) < 0.001*
 No 1361 (55.1) 472 (19.1) 486 (19.7) 150 (6.1)  
 Satellite dish Yes 1656 (26.1) 1189 (18.7) 1679 (26.5) 1820 (28.7) < 0.001*
 No 2331 (49.3) 888 (18.8) 1073 (22.7) 435 (9.2)  
 Fridge Yes 307 (19.3) 256 (16.1) 425 (26.7) 602 (37.9) < 0.001*
 No 3681 (38.8) 1820 (19.2) 2329 (24.6) 1650 (17.4)  
 Freezer Yes 1526 (26.2) 1136 (19.5) 1464 (25.1) 1701 (29.2) < 0.001*
 No 2462 (47.0) 940 (17.9) 1288 (24.6) 552 (10.5)  
 Car Yes 235 (17.1) 215 (15.7) 338 (24.6) 585 (42.6) < 0.001*
 No 3752 (38.7) 1862 (19.2) 2416 (24.9) 1671 (17.2)  
Drinking water source
 Improved 1901 (29.4) 1174 (18.2) 1817 (28.1) 1574 (24.3) < 0.001*
 Unimproved 2077 (45.5) 896 (19.6) 927 (20.3) 664 (14.5)  
Household members use to
 Watch television Yes 2517 (29.8) 1599 (18.9) 2231 (26.4) 2111 (25.0) < 0.001*
 No 1472 (56.2) 478 (18.3) 523 (20.0) 145 (5.5)  
 Listen to the radio Yes 1453 (30.1) 774 (16.0) 1371 (28.4) 1236 (25.6) < 0.001*
 No 2536 (40.6) 1303 (20.9) 1383 (22.2) 1020 (16.3)  
 Read newspaper Yes 194 (14.6) 191 (14.4) 398 (30.0) 543 (41.0) < 0.001*
 No 3795 (38.9) 1886 (19.3) 2356 (24.2) 1713 (17.6)  
Associative filiation
 Yes 2442 (32.3) 1314 (17.4) 1997 (26.4) 1802 (23.9) < 0.001*
 No 1546 (43.9) 762 (21.7) 757 (21.5) 454 (12.9)  
Distance to the health facility
  < 2 km 2469 (32.4) 1453 (19.1) 2018 (26.5) 1677 (22.0) < 0.001*
 2–10 km 806 (36.5) 396 (17.9) 509 (23.0) 500 (22.6)  
  > 10 km 714 (57.2) 228 (18.3 227 (18.2) 79 (6.3)  
Household income
  < =10,000 AOA 996 (41.7) 366 (15.3) 695 (29.1) 330 (13.8)  
 v10,001–30,000 AOA 1340 (27.9) 912 (19.0) 1304 (27.2) 1245 (25.9) < 0.001*
  >  30,000 AOA 494 (31.1) 200 (12.6) 369 (23.2) 526 (33.1)  
Nr. of residents with a
fixed salary Mean ± sd 0.42 ± 0.56 0.62 ± 0.65 0.70 ± 0.68 0.93 ± 0.74 < 0.001‡
Proportion of residents with a fixed salary Mean ± sd 0.13 ± 0.23 0.17 ± 0.24 0.19 ± 0.27 0.22 ± 0.26 < 0.001‡
Health care needs #
 Yes 1783 (32.7) 1034 (19.0) 1417 (26.0) 1218 (22.3) < 0.001*
 No 2204 (39.2) 1042 (18.5) 1337 (23.8) 1036 (18.4)  
If yes, did he/she Yes 1697 (33.0) 981 (19.1) 1341 (26.1) 1127 (21.9) 0,014*
sought for help No 86 (28.1) 53 (17.3) 76 (24.8) 91 (29.7)  
Sought for help
 Informal sources 129 (41.3) 59 (18.9) 81 (26.0) 43 (13.8) 0.001*
 Health care services 1568 (32.4) 922 (19.1) 1260 (26.1) 1084 (22.4)  
Bed net ownership
 Yes 1318 (37.5) 651 (18.5) 826 (23.5) 721 (20.5) 0,035*
 No 2593 (35.1) 1397 (18.9) 1898 (25.7) 1507 (20.4)  
Nr. of bednets in the household
 Mean ± sd 1.87 ± 1.12 1.95 ± 1.06 2.12 ± 1.29 2.39 ± 1.43 < 0.001‡
Slept under a bednet ##
 Yes 1065 (39.0) 484 (17.7) 651 (23.8) 533 (19.5) 0,001*
 No 2846 (34.8) 1564 (19.1) 2073 (25.3) 1695 (20.7)  
Season of the interview
 Rainy 1577 (33.9) 864 (18.6) 1104 (23.8) 1102 (23.7) 0,001*
 Dry 2412 (37.5) 1213 (18.9) 1650 (25.7) 1154 (17.9)  
  1. Note: * χ2
  2. ‡ ANOVA.
  3. # Someone in the household needed health care during the previous month.
  4. ## Someone slept under a bed net during the previous night.